Few city blocks akin to those in Nygrd and Mhlenpris were planned. The city council of Bergen had in 1964 voted to demolish the entirety of Marken, however, the decision proved to be highly controversial and the decision was reversed in 1974. Most of the homes in these areas are detached row houses,[clarification needed] single family homes or small apartment buildings. Of these, 50.2% have background from Europe, 28.9% from Asia, 13.1% from Africa, 5.5% from Latin America, 1.9% from North America, and 0.4% from Oceania. The fire of 1855 west of Torgallmenningen led to the development of regularly sized city blocks in this area of the city centre. For other uses, see, City and municipality in Western Norway, Norway.  Bergen is considered the rainiest city in Europe, although it is not the wettest "place" on the continent.. Most of the urban area is on or close to a fjord or bay, although the urban area has several mountains. Similar processes took place in sane and Laksevg.  Fjord Line operates a cruiseferry service to Hirtshals, Denmark. The Norwegian School of Economics is located in outer Sandviken and is the leading business school in Norway, having produced three Economy Nobel Prize laureates. Parts of Fana, Ytrebygda, sane and Arna are not part of the Bergen urban area, explaining why the municipality has approximately 20,000 more inhabitants than the urban area. Other newspapers published in Bergen include the Christian national Dagen, with a circulation of 8.936, and TradeWinds, an international shipping newspaper. Each year Bergen sells the Christmas Tree seen in Newcastle's Haymarket as a sign of the ongoing friendship between the sister cities. Trading in Bergen may have started as early as the 1020s. The city has a large presence of financial institutions. The city centre is located in Bergenhus. Sentrum, Skansen, Skuteviken, Strandsiden, Stlen, Sydnes. , Demolition of old buildings and occasionally whole city blocks is still taking place, the most recent major example being the 2007 razing of Jonsvollskvartalet at Nstet.. The last element is vin (f.), which means a new settlement where there used to be a pasture or meadow. The city of Bergen was traditionally thought to have been founded by king Olav Kyrre, son of Harald Hardrde in 1070AD, four years after the Viking Age in England ended with the Battle of Stamford Bridge.
Until 1789, Bergen enjoyed exclusive rights to mediate trade between Northern Norway and abroad and it was the largest city in Norway until the 1830s when it was overtaken by the capital, Christiania (now known as Oslo).  Later outbreaks occurred in 1618, 1629 and 1637, on each occasion taking about 3,000 lives. Bergen connects to the island of Bjory via the subsea Bjory Tunnel. Bergen Port is Norway's busiest in terms of both freight and passengers, with over 300 cruise ship calls a year bringing nearly a half a million passengers to Bergen, a number that has doubled in 10 years. The city centre of Bergen lies in the west of the municipality, facing the fjord of Byfjorden. , Bergen is one of the smallest cities in Europe to have both tram and trolleybus electric urban transport systems simultaneously.  The wealthy built villas between Mhlenpris and Nygrd, and on the side of Mount Flyen; these areas were also added to Bergen in 1876. Two internationally renowned composers from Bergen are Edvard Grieg and Ole Bull. Few buildings from the oldest period remain, the most significant being St Mary's Church from the 12th century. As of 1 January 1986, there were 2,870 people with a non-Western immigrant background in Bergen. Bergen is recognized as the unofficial capital of the region known as Western Norway, and recognized and marketed as the gateway city to the world-famous fjords of Norway, and for that reason, it has become Norway's largest and one of Europe's largest cruise ship ports of call. In 1986, the proportion of the total population in the municipality of non-Western background was 3.6%. Four large bridges connect Bergen to its suburban municipalities. , As part of the modernisation wave of the 1950s and 1960s, and due to damage caused by World War II, the city government ambitiously planned redevelopment of many areas in central Bergen. Its mild winters and proximity to the Gulf stream move the plant hardiness zone between 8b and 9a depending on location. The municipality covers an area of 465 square kilometres (180 square miles). Founded in 1850, it had Henrik Ibsen as one of its first in-house playwrights and art directors.  By the late 14th century, Bergen had established itself as the centre of the trade in Norway. The greatest fire in history was in 1702, when 90% of the city was burned to ashes. Arna-Bjrnar and Sandviken play in the Women's Premier League. Bergen. Michelsen Institute is an independent research foundation established in 1930 focusing on human rights and development issues. It was strongly influenced by Low German-speaking merchants from the mid-14th to mid-18th centuries. The borough was numbered 01, and its perimeter was from Store Lungegrdsvann and Strmmen along Puddefjorden around Nordnes and over to Skuteviken, up Mt. The functions of the capital city were lost to Oslo during the reign of King Haakon V (12991319). The Norwegian branches of insurance companies Tryg, DNB Livsforsikring and Nordea Liv are headquartered in Bergen, along with a significant presence of marine insurance companies, including Norwegian Hull Club.  The main motorways consist of E39, which runs northsouth through the municipality, E16, which runs eastwards, and National Road 555, which runs westwards.  The population grew by 4,549 people in 2009, a growth rate of 1,8%.  Other tertiary education institutions include the Bergen School of Architecture, the Bergen National Academy of the Arts, located in the city centre with 300 students, and the Norwegian Naval Academy located in Laksevg. It is now placed in the Nordnes Park and gazes out over the sea towards the friendship city far to the west. The plans involved demolition of several neighbourhoods of wooden houses, namely Nordnes, Marken, and Stlen. Bergen's contemporary art scene is centred on BIT Teatergarasjen, Bergen Kunsthall, United Sardines Factory (USF) and Bergen Center for Electronic Arts (BEK).  Today, Bergen's old quayside, Bryggen, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.. The monument was erected in 1990 by sculptor Kari Rolfsen, supported by an anonymous donor.  Gullfjellet is Bergen's highest mountain, at 987 metres (3,238ft) above mean sea level.. Registrert 2009.  Extensions to other boroughs may occur later. Like similar areas in Oslo (e.g. The growing season in Bergen is exceptionally long for its latitude, with more than 200 days. The 1,500-seat Grieg Hall is the city's main cultural venue, and home of the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, founded in 1765, and the Bergen Woodwind Quintet. It served as Norway's capital in the 13th century, and from the end of the 13th century became a bureau city of the Hanseatic League. The fire marked a transition from tar covered houses, as well as the remaining log houses, to painted and some brick-covered wooden buildings.. From 1974, each borough had a politically chosen administration. In 1916, 300 buildings burned down in the city centre including the Swan pharmacy, the oldest pharmacy in Norway, and in 1955 parts of Bryggen burned down. It was the playwright Ludvig Holberg who felt so inspired by the seven hills of Rome, that he decided that his home town must be blessed with a corresponding seven mountains and locals still argue which seven they are.  There are plans to move the port out of the city centre, but no location has been chosen.  The Hansa community resented Scottish merchants who settled in Bergen, and on 9 November 1523 several Scottish households were targeted by German residents. The full meaning is then "the meadow among the mountains". After rstad became a part of Bergen in 1916, a development plan was applied to the new area. , The population of the (now defunct) borough, numbered in 1994 more than 18,000 people. The city consists of eight boroughs: Arna, Bergenhus, Fana, Fyllingsdalen, Laksevg, Ytrebygda, rstad, and sane. 1 January 2012", "Innvandrere og norskfdte med innvandrerforeldre i 13 kommuner, page 476", So Paulo: The City With No Outdoor Advertisements, "Tall for Norge: Kommunestyrevalg 2019 Nordland", "Table: 04813: Members of the local councils, by party/electoral list at the Municipal Council election (M)", "Tall for Norge: Kommunestyrevalg 2011 Hordaland", "Bydeler i Oslo, Bergen, Stavanger og Trondheim", "Lokaldemokratiets utvikling 1814 2014", "Statistics Norway Population, by sex and age. Bergen is the main base for the Royal Norwegian Navy (at Haakonsvern) and its international airport Flesland is the main heliport for the Norwegian North Sea oil and gas industry, from where thousands of offshore workers commute to their work places onboard oil and gas rigs and platforms. Bergen is also the birthplace of composer Edvard Grieg. , There are 64 elementary schools, 18 lower secondary schools and 20 upper secondary schools in Bergen, as well as 11 combined elementary and lower secondary schools. The immigrant population (those with two foreign-born parents) in Bergen, includes 42,169 individuals with backgrounds from more than 200 countries representing 15.5% of the city's population (2014). Some of these caused Norwegian civilian casualties numbering about 100. This led to large parts of the German-inspired vocabulary disappearing and pronunciations shifting slightly towards East Norwegian.  In 2011, Bergen council launched a plan of action for street art in Bergen from 2011 to 2015 to ensure that "Bergen will lead the fashion for street art as an expression both in Norway and Scandinavia"..  Vy operates express trains to Oslo and the Bergen Commuter Rail to Voss. , The Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, which has its main campus in Kronstad, has 16,000 students and 1800 staff.  22.8% of the population were under 17years of age, while 4.5% were 80 and above. The city also features Carte Blanche, the Norwegian national company of contemporary dance. Banks Sbanken and Sparebanken Vest are headquartered in the city.  FK Fyllingsdalen is the city's second-best team, playing in the Second Division at Varden Amfi. It rained every day from 29 October 2006 to 21 January 2007: 85 consecutive days. From 1831 to 1972, Bergen was its own county. In 1686 another great fire hit Strandsiden, destroying 231 city blocks and 218 boathouses. Bergen was a European Capital of Culture in 2000. The number of Poles in Bergen rose from 697 in 2006 to 3,128 in 2010.. by Lothar Lindtner and Rolf Berntzen on an album in 1977. Bergenhus fortress dates from the 1240s and guards the entrance to the harbour in Bergen. Bergen is sheltered from the North Sea by the islands Asky, Holsny (the municipality of Meland) and Sotra (the municipalities of Fjell and Sund). The national average is 138.0% and 4.2%. , Bergen occupies most of the peninsula of Bergenshalvyen in the district of Midthordland in mid-western Hordaland.  In the 15th century, the city was attacked several times by the Victual Brothers, and in 1429 they succeeded in burning the royal castle and much of the city. The city centre is surrounded by the Seven Mountains, although there is disagreement as to which of the nine mountains constitute these. Summers tend to be significantly more variable. Bergen is considered to be the street art capital of Norway. Fyllingsdalen), others are dominated by single-family homes. In 2006, this figure had increased to 14,630, so the non-Western immigrant population in Bergen was five times higher than in 1986.  This is because Bergen is surrounded by mountains that cause moist North Atlantic air to undergo orographic lift, yielding abundant rainfall. Accidental fires sometimes got out of control, and one in 1702 reduced most of the town to ashes. None of the plans was carried out in its original form; the Marken and Stlen redevelopment plans were discarded and that of Nordnes only carried out in the area that had been most damaged by war. In 1751, there was a great fire at Vgsbunnen. , The 1986 edition of the Eurovision Song Contest took place in Bergen.  The government consists of seven government members called commissioners, and is appointed by the city council, the supreme authority of the city. The various addresses in Bergen, each belong to one of the various grunnkrets. In 1582, another fire hit the city centre and Strandsiden. SK Brann is Bergen's premier football team; founded in 1908, they have played in the (men's) Norwegian Premier League for all but seven years since 1963 and consecutively, except one season after relegation in 2014, since 1987. The city's cathedral was the site of the first royal coronation in Norway in the 1150s, and continued to host royal coronations throughout the 13th century. Ulriken, Flyen, Lvstakken and Damsgrdsfjellet are always included as well as three of Lyderhorn, Sandviksfjellet, Blmanen, Rundemanen and Kolbeinsvarden. The airport serves as a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Widere; there are direct flights to 20 domestic and 53 international destinations. 1 1 The borough Bergenhus is 8.73km2 (3.37sqmi), the rest is water and uninhabited mountain areas. Many of the worker class built their own homes, and many small, detached apartment buildings were built.  In 2013, the Avinor-operated airport served 6 million passengers. Instead of being demolished, the remaining buildings were restored and accompanied by reconstructions of some of the burned buildings. 2 2 The borough rstad is 8.47km2 (3.27sqmi), the rest is water and uninhabited mountain areas. Bryggen was under threat of being wholly or partly demolished after the fire of 1955, when a large number of the buildings burned to the ground.  Famed artist Banksy visited the city in 2000 and inspired many to start creating street art. Local newspapers are Fanaposten for Fana, Sydvesten for Laksevg and Fyllingsdalen and Bygdanytt for Arna and the neighbouring municipality Ostery.
 The unsolved case encouraged international speculation over the years and it remains one of the most profound mysteries in recent Norwegian history..
, Bergen Station is the terminus of the Bergen Line, which runs 496 kilometres (308mi) to Oslo. It has a staff of 700 people.. Outside the city centre and the surrounding neighbourhoods (i.e. Kalfaret, Ladegrden, Lvstakksiden, Marken, Minde. City and municipality in Vestland, Western Norway, This article is about the city in Norway. Since 2000, the city of Bergen has been governed by a city government (byrd) based on the principle of parliamentarism. During the Dano-Norwegian period from 1536 to 1814, Bergen was more influenced by Danish than other areas of Norway. Most of the old buildings of Bergen, including Bryggen (which was rebuilt in a mediaeval style), were built after the fire. Many of the extra-municipal suburbs are on islands.  Bergen is the second-largest city in Norway. In August 2004, Time magazine named the city one of Europe's 14 "secret capitals" where Bergen's capital reign is acknowledged within maritime businesses and activities such as aquaculture and marine research, with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) (the second-largest oceanography research centre in Europe) as a leading institution. In 2011, the port saw 264 cruise calls with 350,248 visitors, In 2009, the port handled 56million tonnes of cargo, making it the ninth-busiest cargo port in Europe. Some of the world's largest aquaculture companies, such as Mowi and Lery are headquartered in the city.  In 2007, there were 104.6 men for every 100 women in the age group of 2039. The principal export traded from Bergen was dried cod from the northern Norwegian coast, which started around 1100. The high precipitation is often used in the marketing of the city, and features to a degree on postcards sold in the city.   This is a suitable name: Bergen is often called "the city among the seven mountains". Owing to an improved literacy rate, Bergensk was influenced by riksml and bokml in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Norwegian resistance movement groups in Bergen were Saborg, Milorg, "Theta-gruppen", Sivorg, Stein-organisasjonen and the Communist Party. The university has a broad range of courses and research in academic fields and three national centres of excellence, in climate research, petroleum research and medieval studies. In athletics, the city is dominated by IL Norna-Salhus, IL Gular and FIK BFG Fana, formerly also Norrna IL and TIF Viking.  The school has more than 3,000 students and approximately 400 staff. Bergen is the southern terminus of Hurtigruten, the Coastal Express, which operates with daily services along the coast to Kirkenes. The rural municipalities of Arna, Fana, Laksevg, and sane were merged with Bergen on 1 January 1972. Population and area, by municipality.  In 1702, seven-eighths of the city burned. After World War II, Bergen had again run short of land to build on, and, contrary to the original plans, many large apartment buildings were built in Lands in the 1950s and 1960s. Also in relation to the total population in Bergen, the proportion of non-Westerns increased significantly. Bergen was separated from Hordaland as a county of its own in 1831.  The Bergen stock exchange, the Bergen brs, was established in 1813. During the 1990s and early 2000s, Bergen produced a series of successful pop, rock and black metal artists, collectively known as the Bergen Wave. This was turned down but as a compromise, the name of the diocese was changed to Bjrgvin bispedmme. Natives speak a distinct dialect, known as Bergensk. While some are dominated by apartment buildings and modern terraced houses (e.g. Similar developments took place beyond Bergen's city limits, for example in Loddefjord. The university co-operates with Haukeland University Hospital within medical research. Bergen has a mild winter climate, though with a lot of precipitation. Bergen gradually assumed the function of capital of Norway in the early 13th century, as the first city where a rudimentary central administration was established. In 1675, 105 buildings burned down in vregaten. The city was granted a monopoly for trade from the north of Norway by King Hkon Hkonsson (12171263). From here, the urban area of Bergen extends to the north, west and south, and to its east is a large mountain massif.  It focuses on professional education, such as teaching, healthcare and engineering.  The highest temperature ever recorded was 33.4C (92.1F) on 26 July 2019, beating the previous record from 2018 at 32.6 degrees, and the lowest was 16.3C (2.7F) in January 1987. The municipality covers 465 square kilometres (180sqmi) and is on the peninsula of Bergenshalvyen. Ethnic Norwegians make up 84.5% of Bergen's residents. The Norwegian Institute of Marine Research has been located in Bergen since 1900.  The city's Hanseatic heritage is documented in the Hanseatic Museum located at Bryggen.. During World War II, Bergen was occupied on the first day of the German invasion on 9 April 1940, after a brief fight between German ships and the Norwegian coastal artillery.  Almost half of the passengers are German or British.  Passenger catamarans run from Bergen south to Leirvik and Sunnhordland, and north to Sognefjord and Nordfjord. Bergen is the administrative centre of Vestland county. , As of the end of Q4 2019[update], the municipality had a population of 283,929, making the population density 599 people per km2. There are four major bridges connecting Bergen to neighbouring municipalities: the Nordhordland Bridge, the Asky Bridge, the Sotra Bridge and the Ostery Bridge. Lambertseter), Fyllingsdalen was developed into a modern suburb with large apartment buildings, mid-rises, and some single-family homes, in the 1960s and 1970s. What remains of the quays, Bryggen, is a World Heritage Site. Mhlenpris, Nordnes, Nygrd, Nstet, Sandviken. The college was created through amalgamation in 1994; campuses are spread around town but will be co-located at Kronstad. , The "Bergen School of Meteorology" was developed at the Geophysical Institute beginning in 1917, the Norwegian School of Economics was founded in 1936, and the University of Bergen in 1946. , Bergen Airport, Flesland, is located 18 kilometres (11mi) from the city centre, at Flesland. In addition, 8.1% were first or second generation immigrants of Western background and 7.4% were first or second generation immigrants of non-Western background. In fact, winters are very mild considering its high latitude, though not warmer than Denmark despite its coastal location and as much as 6C (11F) milder than on the Baltic Sea coasts of Sweden and Finland on the same latitude.
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