blister beetle identification

March-Jul. Part I - Northern Coastal Plain. Suggest your neighbors do the same. In the larval stage, blister beetles prey on the immature stages of solitary bees or on the eggs of grasshoppers in the family Acrididae (short horned grasshoppers), common grasshoppers in found pastures and grasslands. A revision of the genera. April-May. When the pupal stage is complete, the newly emerged adult drops to the ground after nearly ten days and begins feeding on cultivated plants. Unless extensive, medical treatment beyond first aid for blistering on humans is probably not necessary. Interestingly, it is not necessary to ingest the beetle in order to be affected, as hay contaminated with the bodily fluid of crushed beetles can be just as dangerous. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. April-June. Since adults are gregarious and often highly colored, they tend to be conspicuous. Bidens and "thistle" (Asteraceae). Northern Florida, including the panhandle, south to Highlands County. In small gardens, it may be sufficient simply to pick the beetles from the plants. Monitoring can be done quickly and efficiently with a sweep net. Blister beetles (Meloidae) are commonly confused with beetles in the family Oedemeridae (false blister beetles) (Arnett 2008) and the Tenebrionidae subfamily Lagriinae (long-jointed beetles). There is an extensive literature dealing with its reputed aphrodisiacal properties and numerous reports of human poisonings, both accidental and deliberate. False blister beetles, Coleoptera: Oedemeridae, Adams CL, Selander RB. 1981. Once they become adults, theyre nothing but trouble. February-May. If disturbed, blister beetles may secrete a bodily fluid called cantharidin, which is a chemical that can cause irritation, swelling and blistering when it contacts human skin. Figure 16. Kirk VM. E. excavatifrons Maydell - Coastal Mississippi and Alabama, and south in Florida to Marion County. Blister beetle adults feed on broadleaf plants, especially those in the Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae and Solanaceae. Adult Epicauta stigosa (Gyllenhal), a blister beetle. Since several some species of blister beetles particularly striped blister beetle congregate or form clusters of many individuals in a small area of the field, areas where clusters are found can be left unharvested, or sprayed with a spot-treatment insecticide. The blisters soon diminished on their own. the U.S. Coastal Plain from northern Florida (Alachua and Putnam counties) to Alabama and North Carolina. Fourteen of the Florida species are limited largely or entirely to the Atlantic and/or Gulf coasts of the United States. N. punctulata LeConte - Bahama and Cayman islands, Cuba, Jamaica, and the southeastern U.S. 2001. MacSwain JW. In Meloinae, the fully fed FG larva generally excavates a chamber apart from the feeding site. Learn safe, organic solutions for effective blister beetle control here. E. torsa (LeConte) - Oklahoma and east Texas, east on the Coastal Plain to Georgia and north to Body length generally ranges between 3/4 and 2 cm in the Florida species. Figure 7. Arnett Jr RH. Eastern North America from Atlantic coast west to the Great Plains, southern Canada south to Texas and the Gulf Coast. The Beetles of the United States. Blister beetles in alfalfa. Adult Pyrota lineata (Olivier) a blister beetle. They feed on the flowers and leaves of a wide variety of plants, including those in the Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae families, and can cause considerable defoliation to the plants on which they congregatein large numbers. Blister beetles are native to many parts of the United States. The University of Illinois Crop Sciences division has illustrations of these four common typeshere(notice how tightly their wing covers come together). 1956. First cuttings, made before the beetles have increased their numbers, are generally safer than cuttings from later in the season. Adults will visit flowers in order to consume nectar, pollen, and occasionally even the entire flower. They get their name from a caustic chemical they produce called cantharidin. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida.

Adult blister beetlesvary in size and coloring. Floating row coverslet in sun, water and air but keep bugs out! E. funebris (=pestifera) Horn - the margined blister beetle. Adult female Epicauta heterodera Horn, a blister beetle. Florida Veterinary Journal 10: 11-13. Well-anchored row covers can keep migrating beetles off your plants in the mid to late summer. Adult hosts: Principally on cotton, okra, Asteraceae, Opuntia (Cactaceae), Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae), and Vigna (Leguminosae). Orkin Pros are trained to help manage beetles of all kinds. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida. Adult Epicauta vittata (Fabricius), the striped blister beetle. Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. solution is a continuing cycle of three critical stepsAssess, Implement and Monitor. Taken internally or absorbed through the skin, cantharidin is highly toxic to mammals. .css-13o822y{width:15px;height:15px;display:inline-block;line-height:1em;-webkit-flex-shrink:0;-ms-flex-negative:0;flex-shrink:0;color:currentColor;vertical-align:middle;}.css-cc2m3q{transition-property:var(--chakra-transition-property-common);transition-duration:var(--chakra-transition-duration-fast);transition-timing-function:var(--chakra-transition-easing-ease-out);cursor:pointer;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;outline:2px solid transparent;outline-offset:2px;color:inherit;-webkit-box-pack:start;-ms-flex-pack:start;-webkit-justify-content:flex-start;justify-content:flex-start;-webkit-transition:color 0.15s ease-out;transition:color 0.15s ease-out;padding-left:10px;word-break:keep-all;}.css-cc2m3q:hover,.css-cc2m3q[data-hover]{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-cc2m3q:focus,.css-cc2m3q[data-focus]{box-shadow:0 0 0 2px #FFFFFF;}Call 877-819-5061. The concentration of cantharidin in beetles varies by species. Adult Nemognatha punctulata LeConte, a blister beetle. An effective insect killer that was recently discovered from soil in a rumdistillery. P. mutata (Gemminger) - Northern Florida, including the panhandle, south to Polk County. Species of Epicauta, particularly the margined blister beetle, E. funebris, and the striped blister beetle, E. vittata, often damage alfalfa, beet, potato, tomato, and other crops by defoliation. Animals can die from blister beetle poisoning in as little as 72 hours, so its important to call a veterinarianas soon as its suspected. Keys to genera for adult beetles (Arnett 1960) and triungulin larvae (MacSwain 1956) are given in references. Figure 11. General handling of adults seldom results in blistering unless the hemolymph contacts the relatively thin skin between the fingers. Adult Epicauta floridensis Werner (left), and E. cinerea Forster (right). Eggs are laid by the female in protected areas like under stones. Blister beetles are a common field and garden pest best known for the welt-raising secretion they release when injured or crushed. Depending on the type of beetle, aslittle as four to six grams of dead insects can be lethal. Others attach themselves to bees and are also referred to as bee lice. Larvae reaching pupaestage in the fall can overwinter just beneath the soil. Blister beetles receive their common name from the ability of their hemolymph to produce blistering on contact with human skin. Of the Florida species, Nemognatha punctulata LeConte (misidentified as Zonitis vittigera (LeConte)) has been found in a nest of a Megachile sp. When beetles are alarmed or disturbed, they secrete blood and cantharidin. Figure 19. Blister beetles are typically not serious insect pests and only sometimes cause crop damage under specificconditions. https://texasinsects.tamu.edu/hemiptera/blister-beetle/. Cases of fatal poisonings of valuable horses by ingestion of blister beetles trapped in baled alfalfa hay (Kinney et al. Home Pest Problem Solver Garden Pests Complete Guide to Identify and Control, From: Pest Problem Solver Garden Pests. Convolvulaceae (Ipomoea) and Leguminosae (Bradburya, Coelosia) in the U.S. and these families and Bignoniaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Verbenaceae in the West Indies. Blooming fields are very attractive to blister beetles, so fields should be managed such that cutting occurs at early (5-10%) bloom. Most blister beetles have an elongate, cylindrical abdomen, but some look very different. September-October. Hand-picking can be effective in home gardens, particularly when their numbers are low. MacKay RJ, Wollenman P. 1981. Numerous Asteraceae and Psoralea (Leguminosae). Contact with cantharidin causes blistering and tissue damage. Their bodies are tan to amber colored with three dark (black) stripes on each wing cover (elytron). Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostics Laboratory, Texas A&M College of Agrculture and Life Sciences, Insect and Mite Pests of Commercial Pecans, http://texashighplainsinsects.net/insect-of-the-week/2013/5/21/blister-beetles-may-24-2013, https://texasinsects.tamu.edu/hemiptera/blister-beetle/. andragweed (Ambrosia spp.) In mid and late summer, they can arrive in swarms, seemingly overnight and because of their numbers, will do great damage in a short time. Know your farmer well enough that you trust her when you ask about signs of beetles in her crop. Cantharidin or cantharides (dried, pulverized bodies of adult beetles) was once employed extensively in human and veterinary medicine, primarily as a vesicant and irritant and is still used in the U.S. as the active ingredient in a proprietary wart remover (Epstein and Epstein 1960, Kartal Durmazlar et al, 2009). University of California Press. Represented in Florida, where it occurs south to Highlands County, by the nominate, eastern race. If you noticed beetles in your fields, let cut hay lie for two or more days to allow them time to abandon the hay. Coloring can be bright and variegated, striped or flat. A few adults are nocturnal, but most are diurnal or show no distinct diel cycle. Adult "Florida" blister beetle, Epicauta floridensis Werner. The blisters caused by exposure to blister beetles are usually not very serious and blisters will completely clear up in less than a week to 10 days. Most modern hay production equipment is equipped with crimpers which crimp alfalfa stems, shortening the drying time for the hay. Systematic Entomology 26: 33-72. Be aware of the pre-harvest intervals of insecticides used near alfalfa harvest. Adult blister beetles live for over three months, and populations can expand rapidly in warm areas. Horses that have ingested cantharidin may exhibit symptoms of colic, including excessive salivation, diarrhea, bloody feces, sweating, dehydration, cramps, and frequent urination. Catholic University Press, Washington, D.C. 1112 pp. They feed on eggs and stored food in the bee nest as they progress through several additional developmental stages, from larva to legless grub. Some species of blister beetles eveneatleaves. A large number of blister beetles and toxic concentrations of cantharidin in alfalfa hay can pose a major health hazard to horses, cattle, and sheep, especially when ingested in large quantities. Keep an eye on children who put things in their mouth if blister beetles may be present. A few species have rounded ball-like abdomen or short wings and a larva-form abdomen. Blister beetles, feeding in a hay field, may accidentally be ground up when the hay is harvested. Blister beetles pose a potential threat if horse owners use alfalfa as a source of hay. At lights. They usually work in large clusters, gathered on the edge of potato patches and lettuce rows. However, except for first instar larvae (triungulins) frequenting flowers or clinging to adult bees, larval blister beetles are seldom seen. Epstein J, Epstein W. 1960. Upon finding hosts on which the can feed, the larvae take on an increasingly grub-like appearance, before pupation in the spring. Tomato Hornworms: What Are They and How to Get Rid of Them, What is an Earwig and How to Get Rid of Them Effectively, How to Get Rid of Mice In Your Home - Step by Step, Chinch Bugs: What Are They and How to Get Rid of Them, How to Get Rid of Moles in Your Yard Easily (Top 9 Methods), Damping Off: Symptoms, Treatment, And Prevention, Rust Fungus: Identify Symptoms to Treat and Control Rust Disease. Birds will take blister beetles right off your plants. Immature stages of blister beetles often go unnoticed. 1969. The severity of the response depends on the amount of cantharidin swallowed, the size and health of the animal, and can range from temporary poisoning to decreased digestive function to death. A list of the beetles of South Carolina. Cantharidin is toxic if swallowed. E. sanguinicollis (LeConte) - Known only from South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Adult hosts: unknown. Presumably in response to adverse environmental conditions, larvae of several genera of Meloinae can return to the C phase after reaching the SG phase. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Enns WR. Evidence for a third type of larval prey in blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae). Most poisonings in Florida result from importation of alfalfa hay from western states experiencing grasshopper population outbreaks (Capinera, personal communication). Theyre found on tomato, potato, eggplant, peppers, and other solanaceous vegetables as well as leafy greens.

Insects in the City, Scaramuzza LC. Figure 15. Recorded cantharidin content of adult beetles (by dry weight) ranges from less than 1% to a high of 5.4%. Adult hosts: recorded from grass. Phylogenetic studies of Meloidae (Coleoptera), with emphasis on the evolution of phorsey. Research is available to indicate the amount of cantharidin levels present in common species, as well as the estimated number of beetles necessary to provide a lethal dose to horses (Kinney et al. The cantharidin impregnates the hay and can be consumed by the animals, potentially resulting in their death. Their most distinctive feature is the narrow thorax and wider head, a feature that separates them from the majority of other beetles. Keep grasshoppers down usingSemasporeBaitor othernatural grasshopper controls. Figure 10. Figure 1. In response to high temperature, many Epicauta larvae pupate directly from the FG phase or fail to diapause in the C phase; both patterns are conducive to multivoltinism. Keep it out of your landscape entirely. In general, summaries of food plants do not pertain exclusively to Florida. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 20: 114-119. They pupate in the spring, and after about 2 weeks adult blister beetles emerge in the early summer. (December 2002). Adults begin laying clusters of eggs in mid to late spring and continue through most of the season. Blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) are named for the cantharidin toxin found in their bodily fluids, which can induce blisters on human skin and life-threatening inflammations in horses and animals. Blister beetles will feed on just about any leaf that grows in your garden. Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. Blisters commonly occur on the neck and arms, as the result of exposure to adult beetles attracted to outdoor lights at night. Contains diatomaceous earth, a fine powder made from tiny fossilized algae-likeplants. Nemognathinae are unusual in that the SG larva and following pupa and adult are Nemognathine larvae are distinctive in having one to two (not four to five) stemmata on each side of the head, an ecdysial line on the thorax, and no pulvilli (bladderlike appendages). The eggs hatch in two weeks or less. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida. Adult hosts: Asteraceae, Schrankia (Leguminosae), Asteraceae, and cotton. Cantharidin is also present in Spanish fly, a well-known aphrodisiac. August-October. Once well-established, they are almost impossible to eradicatecompletely, even if chemical or other toxic sprays are used. In Florida, recorded in Alachua, Citrus, Sumter, and Brevard counties. Blister beetles. E. obesa (Chevrolat) - Southeastern Canada, south through eastern U.S., south to Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. Rare. Raking hay is helpful in dislodging dead blister beetles before baling. Adult Epicauta pensylvanica (De Geer), the black blister beetle. Meloid beetles (Coleoptera) of the West Indies. Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. E. floridensis Werner - the "Florida" blister beetle. Keeping these beetles out of your home is an ongoing process, not a one-time treatment. Recorded in Florida only from the Keys and Dade County. Blister beetle infestations often occur at the edges of gardens or in surrounding vegetation. Females are able to produce multiple clusters of eggs throughout their lives. 1979. In the following list, seasonal distribution is not mentioned for species that are active in the adult stage from spring to late summer or early fall. Unfortunately, cantharidin is a very stable compound that stays toxic to livestock even when the dried remains of beetles that have been killed during harvesting are fed with forage. Since every home or property is different, the Orkin Pro will design a unique .css-1t6sfr0{transition-property:var(--chakra-transition-property-common);transition-duration:var(--chakra-transition-duration-fast);transition-timing-function:var(--chakra-transition-easing-ease-out);cursor:pointer;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;outline:2px solid transparent;outline-offset:2px;color:var(--chakra-colors-red);-webkit-box-pack:start;-ms-flex-pack:start;-webkit-justify-content:flex-start;justify-content:flex-start;-webkit-transition:color 0.15s ease-out;transition:color 0.15s ease-out;padding-bottom:4px;-webkit-padding-start:2px;padding-inline-start:2px;-webkit-padding-end:2px;padding-inline-end:2px;-webkit-margin-start:-2px;margin-inline-start:-2px;-webkit-margin-end:-2px;margin-inline-end:-2px;text-underline-offset:3px;}.css-1t6sfr0:hover,.css-1t6sfr0[data-hover]{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1t6sfr0:focus,.css-1t6sfr0[data-focus]{box-shadow:var(--chakra-shadows-outline);}.css-1t6sfr0:hover{background-color:var(--chakra-colors-linkHover);-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1t6sfr0:focus{box-shadow:var(--chakra-shadows-none);outline:2px solid black;}beetle treatment program for your situation. Figure 13. Probably statewide in Florida.

Often taken at lights. Twelve species are more or less widely distributed in the central and/or eastern states. Whether you suspect a blister beetle infestation or want to take necessary precautions to prevent that, here are the 12 things you can do to do effective blister beetle control: Frequent and careful inspection of home gardens can go a long way towardscontrolling beetle damage. Selander RB. 1960. Eastern U.S., west to from Texas, Oklahoma and Missouri, north to Illinois. Our customer care team is available for you 24 hours a day. Eastern North America, from eastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, less common west of the Mississipii. A classification of the First Instar Larvae of the Meloidae (Coleoptera). Nemognatha plazata Fabricius, first instar larva. Figure 17. Adult Nemognatha nemorensis Hentz, a blister beetle. And heres anillustrated listof various blister beetles found in Florida thatcan also be found elsewhere in the U.S. A female will lay one or two hundred eggs less than a millimeter wide and one to two millimeters long just beneath the soil surface.

Various types ofthe beetle are commonin the east, south, and midwest. A few larvae evidently prey on the eggs of blister beetles (Selander 1981). Several of the Florida blister beetles feed on cultivated plants. Blister beetles are sometimes a problem for field crops like alfalfa, sweet clover, canola, dry beans, soybeans, potatoes, and sugar beets. They tend to be more of an agricultural/livestock pest. Most distributions and some host data are from Piinto (1991). Blister beetles are in the insect family Melidae. Florida has 26 species, only a small fraction of the total number in the U.S., but nearly three times that of the West Indies (Selander and Bouseman 1960). Zonitis cribricollis (LeConte) - Widely distributed in Florida, south to Dade County Achillea, Coreopsis, Helianthus, and Rudbeckia (Asteraceae). This is especially important in hay crops grown for feed. When haying, avoid using implements such as hay crimpers that may crush the insects. P. schaefferi ((Blatchley) - A taxonomically isolated species known only from Florida (Pinellas, Oyster shell lime can also be used as a barrier but is not an effective killer of beetles and functions mostly as a repellent. Adults, however, can be observed on vegetation. Keep the rangeand numbers of beetles down by spreadingdiatomaceous eartharound threatened plants or using it as a barrier in raised beds or other small plots. Infestations of alfalfa and other hay can ruin it for sale or feeding. Cantharidin treatment of digital and periungual warts. P. lineata (Olivier) - Northern Florida, including the panhandle, south to Polk County. blister beetle cycle identification study beetles bug bugguide bryant peter copyright 2009

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blister beetle identification