Females of Frankliniella schultzei insert their eggs in flower tissue. Keys to the genera of thrips can be found in Palmer et al. (cepa) flowers in the Netherlands; and cotton, tomato, lettuce, pepper, cucumber and tobacco in Brazil. This early infection results in total loss of fruit from this plant.
Riley etal. There are two larval instars and two inactive and non-feeding stages in the life cycle. Both sexes fully winged.
We believe that the use of TNT and organza bags is able to reduce the damage due to these pests in tomato fruits, but field experiments are needed. Leite etal.  The insect can be a vector of tomato spotted wilt virus, which causes a serious disease of groundnuts and other crops. Metanotum with 2 pairs of setae at anterior margin, campaniform sensilla absent. While GN potentially mediates the specific recognition between TSWV and its thrips vector, sequence comparisons and biochemical analysis of GC protein indicated that it facilitates the fusion and subsequent uptake of the virion into vector cells. There are two colour morphs, a dark form and a pale form, each occupying part of the range, with forms of both colours being reported from Egypt, India, Kenya, New Guinea, Puerto Rico, Sudan and Uganda. (2011a) estimated that from 1996 to 2006 there was an annual average loss of $12.3million in peanut, $11.3million in tobacco, and a combined $9million in tomato and pepper for a total of $326million over the 10years in the state of Georgia, alone. Pinet and Carvalho (1998) reported that average development time of the propupa and pupa were 1.2 and 2.1 days when larvae had been fed tomato foliage and maintained at about 26C. (1998) in Brazil studied this thrips life cycle at 24.5C and reported that a complete generation takes around 12.6 days. The virus starts replicating in the larva and survives through the developmental stages.
Sternites IIIVII without discal setae. Among the more advanced Aeolothripidae, the two genera Aeolothrips and Desmothrips are ecological and morphological counterparts of each other, the first restricted to the Holarctic, the second to Australia. It displays the typical development pattern found among thrips that are vegetable crop pests: egg, larva I, larva II, propupa, and pupa before the adult stage. Other grass thrips were distributed in hay on sailing ships during the period of colonial expansion, and species of the European genera Aptinothrips and Limothrips can now be found in temperate zones all over the world. Within the Melanthripidae, the genus Dorythrips has three species in southern South America and two in Western Australia and Cranothrips has one species in South Africa and several in Australia. The anteromarginal setae are slightly shorter than anteroangular setae on the anterior of the prothorax. Female macroptera. Male macroptera. A critical first step to thrips management in tomato begins with proper identification and understanding the biology of the individual thrips species relative to their role in the epidemiology of tospoviruses. Figure 7. North America: United States (central and southern Florida), Colorado, Hawaii. Sakimura K. 1969. Rust, stem-rot (Sclerotium rolfsii), collar-rot (Aspergillus niger Van Teighem), and leaf spots are also quite serious and together may cause the loss of 5060% of pod yield in India (Dwivedi etal., 2003; Subrahmanyam etal., 1985). Wang C-L, Lin F-C, Chiu Y-C, Shih H-T (2010) Species of Frankliniella Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from the Asian-Pacific Area. Figure 6. Species boundaries also define the limits to the spread of insecticide resistance or any genetically controlled traits that are inherited through sexual reproduction. 2012). In 1939, Bonnemaison (1939) reported TSW in several locations in France. 2012).
The vast increase in the use of air transport by the horticultural trade since 1980 continues to expand the world distributions of pest thrips.
1975. Life Cycle and Description. Assessing abundance and distribution of an invasive thrips, Kakkar G, Kumar V, Seal DR, Liburd OE, Stansly PA. 2016. Kirk WDJ &Terry LI (2003) The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). For TSWV epidemics to occur, thrips vectors should complete a life cycle on virus-infected host plants. The global Arachis gene pool possesses the source of resistance to many biotic stresses, including rust, ELS, LLS, Groundnut Rosette Disease [GRD, caused by a complex of three agents: groundnut rosette virus (GRV), its satellite RNA (sat RNA), and a groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV)], Peanut Bud Necrosis Virus (PBND), A. flavus induced aflatoxin contamination, bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), leafminer (Aproaerema modicella), Spodoptera, jassids (Empoasca kerri Pruthi), thrips (Frankliniella schultzei Trybom) and termites (Odontotermes sp.) 2012. Manual de tcnicas de cultivo de hortalizas de fruta (tomate, meln, frutilla.
The major hosts of Frankliniella schultzei are cotton, groundnut, beans and pigeon pea. Egg. A TSW-resistant tomato cultivar, Stevens (Stevens etal., 1991), was available but was not as productive as standard hybrids (Riley and Pappu, 2000).
Silvia et al. Pronotum with 5 pairs of major setae; anteromarginal setae slightly shorter than anteroangulars, one pair of minor setae present medially between posteromarginal submedian setae. Early attempts at control consisted of one of the following: the systemic insecticide imidacloprid applied as a seedling drench to reduce thrips feeding; foliar insecticides to suppress thrips populations; and reflective mulch to deter thrips from alighting on the plants (Riley and Pappu, 2000). Most of the 180 described species are known only from the neotropics, butF. schultzei,F. occidentalisandF. williamsihave been widely introduced around the world (Kirk & Terry, 2003). In the warm environments where they typically occur, there are several overlapping generations annually. First record of Tomato Chlorotic Spot Virus in the USA. Hot temperatures and high humidity are important factors supporting huge populations of thrips in Florida. Several biotic stresses are known to limit peanut productivity, and their severity and extent of distribution vary with the cropping system, growing season, and region. Understanding host plant relationships Sustainable Management of Arthropod Pests of Tomato, Protection of Tomatoes Using Bagging Technology and Its Role in IPM of Arthropod Pests, Handbook of Vegetable Pests (Second Edition), Greenough etal., 1990; Gitaitis etal., 1998; Riley and Pappu, 2000, Greenough etal., 1985; Culbreath etal., 1991, Momol etal., 2004; Riley and Pappu, 2004, Advancements in molecular marker development and their applications in the management of biotic stresses in peanuts, Dwivedi etal., 2003; Subrahmanyam etal., 1985, Rao etal., 2002; Basu and Singh, 2004; Amin etal., 1985; Rao etal., 2014, Holbrook and Stalker, 2003; Singh etal., 1984, Mishra etal., 2009; Varshney etal., 2014; Pandey etal., 2012, Mondal etal., 2005; Herselman, 2003; Raina etal., 2001; He and Prakash, 2001, Dwivedi etal., 2003; Shoba etal., 2012; Sujay etal., 2012, Shoba etal., 2012; Varma etal., 2005; Shirasawa etal., 2013, Varma etal., 2005; Mace etal., 2006; Shirasawa etal., 2013, Mace etal., 2006; Shirasawa etal., 2013, Shoba etal., 2012; Shirasawa etal., 2013, Sujay etal., 2012; Shirasawa etal., 2013, Mondal and Badigannavar, 2010; Shirasawa etal., 2013. Identification of the common thrips of tropical Africa (Thysanoptera: Insecta). Thrips-transmitted TSWV was confirmed to be a severe and widespread disease in tomato (Fig. Therefore, the use of more robust assays such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), competitive allele-specific PCR (KASPar) and genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approaches are needed. in Egypt, Sudan, Uganda and Kenya in Africa. Cucumber flower showing decoloration due to feeding by adult common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom.
Recently in Florida, a new incidence of TCSV on tomatoes has been recorded and its spread has been associated with Frankliniella schultzei (Londoo et al. This species seems not to be as well known as many others. The host relationships and ecology of each of the species within "F. schultzei" also need to be assessed separately before the evolution of this complex can be understood. Most of the230 described species are known only from the neotropics, but F. schultzei, and F. occidentalis have been widely introduced around the world (Kirk & Terry, 2003). Photograph by Vivek Kumar, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. 3.1) in Georgia (Gitaitis etal., 1998), which lead to intensive pesticide use and other tactics to control thrips and reduce economic losses in this high value crop (Greenough etal., 1990; Gitaitis etal., 1998; Riley and Pappu, 2000). Photograph by Garima Kakkar, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. There is no evidence of transovarial transmission. Tropical Plant Pathology. Through the 1970s, TSW in tomato remained a sporadic pest problem in the United States. Infected plants that do not support thrips lifecyle can be considered as a dead end in disease epidemiology. Wang etal., 2011; Varshney etal., 2014; Gajjar etal., 2014, GPBD 4, ICGV 99001, ICGV 99004, COG 0437, TAG 24, TMV 2, GPBD 4, ICGV 99003, ICGV 99005, TG 26, TMV 2. Head of an adult common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom, showing interocellar setae at 40 magnification. Dorsal view of an adult common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom. In that study, male thrips were most attracted to yellow sticky traps while female thrips were more attracted to pink sticky traps (Yaku et al. 37: 333-338. Figure 5. (2016) assessed Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Phytoseiidae) and Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Phytoseiidae) for suppression of blossom thrips they were not effective, whereas they were effective for Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Female either yellow with faint shadings on tergites and antennal segments VIVIII brown, or brown with pronotum, tibiae and tarsi paler, and antennae brown with segments IIIV yellow at base; fore wings pale with dark setae. Distinct levels of specificity in thrips transmission of tospoviruses. Australian Thysanoptera - biological diversity and a diversity of studies.
In this review, we made an attempt to capture the recent updates in molecular marker development and their applications in the management of various biotic stresses in peanut. Nagata T, De Avila AC. Metanotum with 2 pairs of setae at anterior margin, campaniform sensilla absent. Photograph by Garima Kakkar, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. Central America and Caribbean: Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico. Pinet and Carvalho (1998) reported that average development time of the first and second instars each was 2.5 days when fed tomato foliage and maintained at about 26C. (2015) has identified 376 polymorphic SSR markers in 16 African groundnut cultivars with a wide range of disease resistance. In a 1980 California study of arthropod pests of tomatoes, thrips did not make the list of primary or secondary pests of tomato, and were not mentioned in standard field survey report forms (Lange and Bronson, 1981). By the 1940s, tomato was being bred for TSW resistance in Hawaii (Kikuta and Frazier, 1946) and spraying programs for thrips control to reduce TSW were being developed in Brazil (Costa etal., 1950). In the peanut growing regions, high yielding, well-adapted cultivars contain multiple resistances to biotic stresses that can provide enhanced and sustainable peanut production (Dwivedi etal., 2003).
See the sections on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, or western flower thrips, Thrips occidentalis Pergande, for additional discussion of natural mortality factors.
A summary of biology and characters used for identification is given by Kakkar et al.
Identification of groundnut Thysanoptera. Amin PW, Palmer JM. (2017). 2001. Because of the frequent occurrence of multiple diseases, peanut yields are often significantly lower than their potential (Holbrook and Stalker, 2003). Geographical distribution patterns are less clear among the Phlaeothripidae. of polyphagous flower thrips, a case study of, Monteiro RC, Mound LA and Zucchi RA. , The adult common blossom thrips is a very small insect with a length of between 1 and 1.6mm (0.04 and 0.06in). The two main thrips vector species associated with the initial TSW epidemic in the southeastern United States were the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, F. occidentalis (Greenough etal., 1985; Culbreath etal., 1991). Common blossom thrips is known principally as a pest of cotton, peanuts, bean, and pigeon pea. It also occurs nearby in Bermuda and many islands in the Caribbean, and seems likely to spread further within North America. 2000. Moreover, the partial and polygenic nature of biotic stresses makes the identification of resistant and susceptible lines very tedious using conventional screening techniques (Leal-Bertioli etal., 2009). 2016). However, no other research was found about the use of bags against these pests. From: Sustainable Management of Arthropod Pests of Tomato, 2018, Germano Leo Demolin Leite, Amanda Fialho, in Sustainable Management of Arthropod Pests of Tomato, 2018. In the genus Frankliniella, the common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom, is a relatively new vegetable pest in South Florida. Smith (1933) reported that spotted wilt of tomato had been observed at that time in Australia, the British Isles (in glasshouses), and in the United States. Fore wing with 2 complete rows of veinal setae. Predation by. Supplement.
The following section focuses on the two main vector species, F. occidentalis and F. fusca, in the southeastern United States. Pinet and Carvalho (1998) studied the biology of F. schultzei on tomato in Brazil when cultured at 24.4C.
These accessions have many differences in their vegetative, reproductive, physiological, and biochemical traits. How this management strategy and the resulting recommendations were developed is summarized from the body of work presented by the authors at http://www.tswvramp.org/ and discussed in the following sections.
Thrips are a very small insects. The incidence of TSW was not significantly reduced by the available inorganic and nicotine insecticides at that time (Samuel and Pittman, 1928). 2001) and in Paraguay (Ishijima 2002); tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV); groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) (Wijkamp et al. Sampling. (1989). At the time of writing of this chapter, the status of TSW in tomato in the southeastern United States is considered adequately managed with host-plant resistance, reflective mulch, and various chemical treatments. In a survey of selected vegetable crops in southern Florida, F. schultzei was most abundant in blossoms of tomato, squash, and cucumber, relative to bean and pepper (Kakkar et al., 2012). Europe: Belgium, mainland Spain, the Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. Zoological Studies 49: 824848. Many species then actively jump into the air, and before take off, winged Thripidae comb the marginal cilia of their wings from a parked position parallel to the wing margin into a flight position at right angles to the wing. For example, Chirothrips species pupate within the glumes of grass florets and are widely distributed in commercial grass seed. It is a key pest in tomato and cucumber fields in South America. By 1942, insecticide treatment and greenhouse sanitation proved effective for managing this problem in Oregon (Leach and Berg, 1944). Photograph by Garima Kakkar, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. The world's largest peanut germplasm collection with more than 15,000 accessions is housed at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in India (Gowda etal., 2013). Each of the species in a pest species complex has to be investigated separately from the others. Agricultural Insect Pest of the Tropics and Their Control, Cambridge University At the same time, TSW problems in tomato were also reported in Arkansas (Gergerich, 1985), Louisiana (Greenough etal., 1985), and northern Florida (Olson and Funderburk, 1986). Among biotic stresses, several diseases including rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/thrips_of_california/Thrips_of_California.html. In contrast, the genus Thrips, with 285 species worldwide, has no species native to the Americas south of Mexico, and the genus Frankliniella, with 220 species, includes very few that have a natural distribution anywhere outside the New World. 2004. Also, a key to common vegetable-infesting thrips is found in Appendix A. H.R. A comment on the color forms of Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in relation to transmission of the tomato-spotted wilt virus. When thrips were fed with the purified GN, the protein could be detected in the midgut epithelial cells of the larvae which subsequently resulted in the prevention of TSWV acquisition, suggesting that GN may be involved in virus recognition by the thrips vector. Cd-rom published by CBIT, Brisbane. First and second instar larvae are capable of acquiring the virus though the former is more efficient. Females deposit their eggs in the blossoms of host plants. Mound LA. (2014) did not observe any thrips or mite damage in tomato fruits that were bagged. Malesimilar to female but smaller; tergite VIII with a few teeth laterally on posterior margin; sternites IIIVII with broadly transverse pore plate. A soluble form of in vitro-expressed TSWV GN protein was used to study its role in recognition by thrips vectors.
Sakimura (1969) reported the varied distribution of the two color morphs across the globe: Mixed colonies of both color forms are reported by Mound (1968) in Egypt, India, Kenya, Puerto Rico, Sudan, Uganda, and New Guinea. Figure 3.1. Similar to female but smaller; tergite VIII with a few teeth laterally on posterior margin; sternites III-VII with broadly transverse pore plate. When tested in shadehouse and field conditions, the two mites species failed to control Frankliniella schultzei in the presence of other thrips inhabiting cucumber leaves. The dark form is also found in Europe, whereas in Africa and Asia both color forms exist. For any molecular breeding program, assessment of genetic diversity and development of genetic linkage maps are two very important steps (Dwivedi etal., 2003). In the United States, McWhorter and Milbrath (1938) summarized a 4-year study on thrips-transmitted tip blight in southern Oregon cannery tomato production areas (the vectors Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande and T. tabaci were reported as present) and was the first to document that weeds could serve as a virus reservoir. Table1. Copyright 2022 OzThrips. Frankliniellaspecies all have a pair of setae in front of the first ocellus, a complete row of setae on both veins of the forewing, and a pair of ctenidia on tergite VIII situated anterolateral to the spiracles. This is a highly polyphagous pest, feeding and breeding in flowers and on leaves, however, it also feeds on leaf mites of which it can be a useful biocontrol agent.
Kakkar G, Seal DR, Kumar V. 2012. The embryonic stage lasts for four days and the 1st and 2nd larval instars, prepupa and pupa take an average of 2.5, 2.5, 1.2, and 2.1 days respectively. It has been recorded from 83 species of plants among 35 families (Palmer 1990).
Abdomen of an adult common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom, showing a weakly developed comb on the eight abdominal segment at 40 X magnification. 1995) causing damage to tomato cropc in Brazil (Monteiro et al. South America: Argentina (Rio de Janeiro), Brazil (Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Colombia, Chile, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Natural Enemies. Severe infestations can cause discoloration and stunted growth of the plant (Amin and Palmer 1985). However, even wingless individuals are dispersed by the wind. The adult female and male longevity is approximately 13 days. Head wider than long; 3 pairs of ocellar setae, pair III arising close together between anterior margins of hind ocelli and as long as side of ocellar triangle; postocular setae pair IV as long as distance between hind ocelli. Adult female thrips that consume mite eggs increase their fecundity and longevity. Londoo A, Capobianco H, Zhang S, Polston JE. Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as groundnuts, are grown in more than 120 countries with different agro-climatic zones between latitudes 40 S and 40 N on approximately 2124Mha of land annually (Sarkar etal., 2014). and M A Curtis), and aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are global constraints against peanut production (Subrahmanyam etal., 1984; Waliyar, 1991). However, it has a wide host range, and is found at least on 83 species from 35 families of plants.
1968. List of a few genotypes, used for mapping of various resistance gene(s) (Dwivedi etal., 2003; Shoba etal., 2012; Sujay etal., 2012). 1990. This species is somewhat unusual in having two distinct color forms. Figure 2. Adult. Losses as high as 95% in spring-grown susceptible tomatoes were observed at individual sites during the mentioned time period. Nakahara S. (1997) Annotated list of the Frankliniella species of the world (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).
Crops suffering economic damage due to Frankliniella schultzei in different parts of the world include tomato, tobacco, cotton, grain legumes, groundnut and lettuce in India; ladys fingers, thistle, Japanese daisies, irises, spinach, tomato, carnation, pumpkin, carola (Tagates erecta), aubergine and kidney beans in Cuba; Allium sp. Like other thrips, Frankliniella schultzei can also be sampled using colored sticky traps. Tropical Pest Management 36: 27-49. Some distribution patterns are clearly natural.
Two generalist predatory mites,Amblyseius cucumerisOudemans andAmblyseius swirskiiAthias-Henriot, known for their potential in controlling soft-bodied insect pests including thrips were tested against Frankliniella schultzei. Unlike the larval instars, the propupa and pupa do not feed. However, the pale form of Frankliniella schultzei is reported to be a weak vector of TSWV and TCSV and a non-vector of GRSV (Sakimura 1969, Cho et al. Presumably these two advanced genera of Thripinae evolved at about the time that the American continent separated from Europe. All rights reserved. ), early leaf spot (ELS, Cercospora arachidicola), late leaf spot (LLS, Phaeoisariopsis personata Ber.
Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) attacks tomato plants and is most numerous in tomato flowers. Therefore, tospoviruses are capable of replicating in both their host plants and thrips vectors.
The interocellar setae arise along an imaginary line across the front edges of the two hind ocelli. However, it also feeds on leaf mites of which it can be a useful biocontrol agent. The family Heterothripidae is confined to the New World, and most species of Merothripidae are also restricted to that area. Distorted cucumber fruits due to feeding by the common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom. Distribution. Identification of thrips species is dependent on the colour, the number and arrangement of the bristles on the body and the details of the comb on the eighth abdominal segment. 1988). Since the 1960s, interspecific hybridization has received much attention in peanuts because several wild Arachis species show a very high level of resistance to many biotic stresses, such as rust, ELS, LLS, and stem rot (Holbrook and Stalker, 2003; Singh etal., 1984). Phytopathology 85: 1069-1074. Contributions on Entomology, International 2: 353389. Ishijima, T. 1991. Management 31: 268-291. Hoddle MS, Mound LA & Paris D. 2008. Journal of Phytopathology 148: 123-125. Frankliniella schultzei manifest two different color morphs, a dark and a pale form (Sakimura 1969). , Besides feeding on plant tissues, the common blossom thrips feeds on pollen grains and on the eggs of mites. Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) attacks tomato plants and is most numerous in tomato flowers. As with most thrips, predatory mites (Phystoseiidae) and minute pirate bugs (Anthocoridae) are often suggested as important biological control agents. Vierbergen G, Mantel WP. 2007. Frankliniella schultzei is found in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world.
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