summer learning loss facts

Retrieved from: http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/documents/building-quality-in-summer-learning-programs.pdf. Iceland, J. While some children gain an additional 32% of their in-school gains over the summer, others lose almost 90% of what they have learned over the year. Retrieved from: Denton D. R.(2002). One example of a home-based summer reading program that has been shown to be effective for low-income upper elementary school students is READS for Summer Learning.14 In READS, which has been iteratively modified over several randomized trials, students receive eight books in the mail over the summer that are matched to their reading level and interests. The survey, however, only covers the summers after kindergarten and first grade for a single cohort of students. [21], Loss of academic skills and knowledge over the course of summer vacation. Are Schools the Great Equalizer? The findings may increase pressure to hold catch-up classes when schools reopen in September. View book lists by age for the Challenge by clicking here and scrolling down to "Resources," or browse selections at the Scholastic Store Online. Ways to incorporate educational technology into your summer plans: Between 65,200 educational apps and various tech-based toys, there is an endless supply of tech projects to encourage summer learning for your child. The first study, Schools out: The role of summers in understanding achievement disparities, was recently published in the American Educational Research Journal and examined the magnitude and variability in summer learning loss across grades 18. Cognitive Inequality during the Summer Months and the School Year. American Sociological Review, 69 5, 613-635. An important caveat in interpreting differences is that MAP Growth studies examine growth for kids in grades K8, but it is not possible to compare findings for grades other than K1 using ECLS-K:2011. Naturally, school-based summer school programs vary in their effectiveness. Many of the recommendations for creating high-quality programs come in the form of expert opinion. Common suggestions include blending academic learning with hands-on or recreational activities, professionalizing summer school staff, and forming partnerships with community organizations to leverage resources.10 We can also draw some lessons from research. For instance, the recent meta-analysis found that programs were more effective when they used research-based literacy instruction; specifically, programs using instructional strategies identified by the National Reading Panel as best practices had the largest impact on students reading comprehension scores (equivalent to moving from the 50thto the 65thpercentile of a normal distribution). Researchers followed the test scores of almost 18 million children over five summers, from first to sixth grade, for the study, published in the American Educational Research Journal. Entwisle D. R.,Alexander K. L.,Olson L. S.(2000).Summer learning and home environment. The study also tracked these students' progress through high school and college. However, the results also showed that summer loss varies greatly, and that race/ethnicity and school-level poverty do not explain much of the variance in summer learning patterns. Students are asked to mail the postage-prepaid tri-fold back; families receive reminders when tri-folds are not returned. Grow. The results of the study indicate that the most significant reading gains occurred for disadvantaged students while students from middle to high socio-economic upbringings remained stable on standardized measures of reading (Kim, 2006). Exploring cultural/educational events and places can foster learning in a variety of areas, including history, science, and more. 20689. http://www.nber.org/papers/w20689. Unlike Cooper, however, Kim and Quinn found that it was low-income students who benefited most from summer reading programs (even when restricting the comparison to higher- and lower-income students attending the same program). Furthermore, they concluded that the reason lower-income students benefited more was that lower-income students in these studies were more likely than higher-income students to experience summer loss when not participating in the summer programs. The authors noted several differences between their review and Cooper et al.s that could explain the contrasting results: 1) Kim and Quinn analyzed only reading programs, while Cooper and colleagues combined math and reading programs, 2) Kim and Quinn included only two-group experimental and quasi-experimental studies, while Cooper and colleagues included single-group pre/post-test designs, and 3) Kim and Quinn included home-based programs in their review.

This phenomenon sometimes referred to as summer learning loss, summer setback, or summer slide has been of interest to education researchers going back as far as 1906.1 We review what is known about summer loss and offer suggestions for districts and states looking to combat the problem. The concept of the summer slide has been on researchers radar since at least 1996, when one of the first comprehensive studies on the phenomenon was published. The active involvement of caregivers in their child's educational career only enhances academic achievement, as research indicates the significant influence that family involvement has on successful student outcomes (Timmons, 2008). [5] While some programs produce good results, there is a concern that the results will not last unless at-risk students receive extra support during the school year. Creative activities can directly help with subjects such as English and art. Read on to discover how much knowledge your child can lose this summer (and activities that can help reduce summer learning loss). Theres a lot policymakers can do to support schools during COVID-19. Researchers from The Ohio State University extended summer learning gap research further by conducting a national study of 17,000 kindergarten and first grade children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Atteberry, A., & McEachin, A. In designing such programs, policymakers should keep in mind the recommendations from the research described above: Regardless of the design, these policies should offer engaging options for students over the summer so that summer learning programs do not feel like punishment for students who would rather be enjoying summer vacation. Doing so would set more students up for success as the school year gets underway. so your child is primed for school success in the fall. Effective summer reading programs provide families with meaningful strategies and resources that can be carried over and implemented in their home, which ensures continuity of summer reading programs throughout year, after the intervention has concluded (Timmons, 2008). Where does this leave us in terms of understanding SLL? To get started, check out this year'sScholastic Read-a-Palooza Summer Reading Challenge, a free, educational program in which kids can enter reading minutes online to unlock exclusive digital rewards and help donate books to kids in need across the country. To better understand summer learning lossand to better support learning for all students throughout the yearmore research is needed on how students spend time during their summers and what resources are available from schools and communities to support students and families during out-of-school periods. Higher-income students tend to continue to have access to financial and human capital resources (such as parental education) over the summer, thereby facilitating learning.7. Alexander, Karl, Entwisle, Doris, and Olson, Linda. Summer Learning and the effects of schooling. Further, it is predominantly literacy related skills that are affected the most (Graham,2011). [8] Heyns found that while poor children and black children came close to keeping up with middle-class children in cognitive growth when school was in session, they lagged far behind during the summer. Ways to incorporate creative activities into your summer plans: Doing creative activities can help to improve higher-level thinking in the brain. Check out these fun and educational apps for your child: Motion Math | Story Time For Kids, Educational apps can help promote your childs problem-solving and critical thinking skills. Over the summer, however, the flow of resources slows for students from disadvantaged backgrounds but not for students from advantaged backgrounds. Because summer school programs are voluntary, self-selection also confounds the effects of attending. (See, Learning rates are more variable during the summer than during the school year. 33-43. In Defense of Inequality. The American Economic Review, 89 2, 1-17. Building quality in summer learning programs: Approaches and recommendations (White Paper Commissioned by the Wallace Foundation).

Does reading during the summer build reading skills? [13] In characterizing the U.S. poverty population, John Iceland revealed that poor African-American children are less likely to escape poverty than others 1 in 3 were still poor at ages 25 to 27, as compared to 1 in 12 white children. But the extent of the loss will fuel fears over the impact of the coronavirus lockdown, with some children away from school for five months, more than three times as long as a typical summer break. Oxford Learning is an award-winning member of the Canadian Franchise Association. Experts have found that novelty stimulates the brain and promotes learning. A White Paper 2021", "Effects of Voluntary Summer Learning Programs on Low-Income Urban Youth, Rand Corporation 2016", "Summer learning happens at home, Harvard.edu, June 13, 2017", "Socioeconomic Gaps in Children's Summer Experiences: 1999 to 2011, Kathleen Lynch", "Free from school-year demands, summer camps are a key venue for social-emotional learning, Harvard.edu July 1, 2016", "Why kids lose math knowledge, and how families can work to counteract it, Harvard.edu, June 24, 2016", "Summer Learning Loss: The Problem and Some Solutions, LDonline.org", "How Summer Programs Can Boost Children's Learning, Rand Corporation, 2011", "Summer Learning Loss: What We Know and What We're Learning, Megan Kuhfeld, PhD, NWEA.org, July 16, 2018", "The Summer Learning Slide: Would Guided Study Programs Make a Difference? You successfully shared the article. Professor Kim says kids should have access to a wide variety of books that they enjoy reading and are fully able to comprehend. e.g., Kim, J.S., Guryan, J., White, T.G., Quinn, D.M., Capotosto, L., & Kingston, H.C. (2016). An early comprehensive review of the literature summarized several findings regarding summer loss.2 The authors concluded that: (1) on average, students achievement scores declined over summer vacation by one months worth of school-year learning, (2) declines were sharper for math than for reading, and (3) the extent of loss was larger at higher grade levels. Summer break is typically a time for kids to kick back, indulge in a little extra screen time, play outside, and embrace the kind of freedom that only comes with being young and having zero responsibilities. In addition to academic content, include hands-on or recreational activities to attract students. Ways to incorporate educational family activities into your summer plans: Involving the whole family in learning can help increase emotional well-being. So, what should your child learn over the summer to keep him or her on track? While the average kindergarten learning rate was 1.65 test points per month, a standard deviation's advantage in SES predicted a relative gain of 0.16 points per month during summer, 0.07 points per month during kindergarten, and 0.05 points per month during first grade. Raise a reader by getting the best book recommendations, reading tips, and discounts delivered straight to your inbox. In 2018, 10,000 students participated in Ontario, most programs were three weeks long and funding was allocated at $10,000 per class. Summer learning loss is a case of use it or lose it. Help prevent learning loss and encourage skill development this summer with some of the above ideas! They found that in year nine, the low-socioeconomic status (SES) group's Reading Comprehension average lagged 73 points behind the high-SES group's on the California Achievement Test (CAT-V). Visiting a historic site or even simply reading together at the park can help your child get more excited about reading and learning. [19] After three years of delivering the SLP, they concluded that the programs a) make a difference for students experiencing literacy challenges, b) minimize summer learning losses, and c) in many cases, increase literacy achievements. Will New EU Law Begin Holding Social Media To Account? Measurement artifacts and what we can know in spite of them. Schools out: Summer learning loss across grade levels and school contexts in the United States today. In Alexander, K., Pitcock, S., & Boulay, M. (Eds). The, Cooper, H., Charlton, K., Valentine, J. C., & Muhlenbruck, L. (2000). Physical health is very important as it is known to improve academic performance. Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. nork poems yew america california paperback heart development order fox bay multiple against natural planning But the study suggests that what happens out of school may be at least as important as what goes on in the classroom in closing the gap between students.

test score gaps between low-income and high-income students, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 201011 (ECLS-K:2011), Schools out: The role of summers in understanding achievement disparities,, When does inequality grow? Tweet This. Summer break allows your child to ditch the assigned reading and choose books that spark interest and excitement, transforming reading from a school assignment to a fun and engaging summer activity. Schools and districts should want to address the issue of summer learning loss not only because it may exacerbate achievement gaps, but also because it wastes so much of the knowledge students have gained during the school year. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2745527. Being creative helps create neural pathways between different parts of the brainhelpful for all areas of learning! Students score lower on standardized math tests at the end of the summer, as compared to their own performance on the same tests at the beginning of summer. However, such findings are not consistent with a recent review by Guryan and Kim (2010) whereby a summer reading intervention was implemented for low-income Latino children. You could even play "theater" and put on a show inspired by all of the great summer books youre reading together. Children lose up to 40% of the gains they have made over the school year while on summer break, according to a new study. Generally speaking, the programs slowed learning loss. Summer loss also undoubtedly increases the amount of time teachers have to spend re-teaching last years content, likely contributing to the repetitiveness of the typical U.S. curriculum.18 While investing in extensive school-based summer options may be infeasible, it may be cost-effective and strategic for districts to begin to offer targeted out-of-school interventions to the students most at risk of backsliding. "[14] While no consensus has been reached on a model to explain this lack of mobility, some research has provided the strongest support for the economic resources model, where parents lack of money and time hinders the ability to invest in children's education." The difference at the margins is extreme. Welch, F. 1999. Graham, McNamara and Van Lankveld (2011) conducted a summer literacy program to address specific literacy needs of young children which also required the involvement of caregivers in program delivery.

And children in that group lost an average of 39% of the gains they had made over the school year. School, summer, and achievement gaps,, Summer learning loss: Does it widen the achievement gap?, Do test score gaps grow before, during, or between the school years?, When does inequality grow? In 2000, Cooper and colleagues published a comprehensive meta-analysis of classroom-based summer programs finding positive effects on average.8 However, they also concluded that middle-income students benefited more from summer programming than did lower-income students. They speculated that this could be because programs serving more advantaged students were of higher quality, or because of an interactive effect between programming and the home resources available to students. The result raised the concern that attempts to stem summer learning loss may actually exacerbate summer gap-growth if they are not well targeted. In recent years the project has included both French and English classes, blended literacy & numeracy, robotics, coding, student mentors, Indigenous activities and English Language Learning. The study showed that kids lose significant knowledge in reading and math over summer break, which tends to have a snowball effect as they experience subsequent skill loss each year.

Use these ideas to make reading an enjoyable pastime for both you and your child.

The results also indicate that summer may play a role in widening socioeconomic achievement gaps but does not play a large role in widening racial/ethnic achievement disparities, like Black-White gaps. [7] This loss was most acute in factual and procedural learning such as mathematical computation, where an average setback of more than two months of grade-level equivalency was observed among both middle- and lower-class students. Even though it may not seem like theyre directly learning when theyre crafting their own superhero capes with a superhero starter kit or dreaming up complex chain reactions with educational LEGO sets, theyre still calling on familiar skills and developing new ones. These results are consistent with other researchers' findings that a family's socioeconomic status affects children's achievement scores almost exclusively when school is closed. by the time they return in September (Photo by Matthew Horwood/Getty Images), PwC Cloud and Digital Transformation BrandVoice, 4 Steps To Help Your Kids Build Smart Money Habits, How To Earn Cash Rewards For Everyday Spending. New York: Alfred Knopf. These activities promote essential skills such as problem-solving and critical thinking. Barbara Heyns 1978 landmark study of 2,978 6th and 7th graders in the Atlanta city public schools was the first thorough investigation of summer learning. Tweet This. Games and puzzles are a great way for kids to brush up on the basics while having fun at the same time. While most students made progress throughout the school year, the same cannot be said for the summer break. Lots of kids dread math. Look out for a confirmation email from us.

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summer learning loss facts