The demands of these populations have been at least partially upheld by the Nigerian Federal Government in 12 states, firstly in Zamfara State in 1999.  In many predominantly Muslim states, conversion from Islam to another religion is illegal and often a capital offence. On 13 June, Boko Haram killed at least 20 soldiers in Monguno and more than 40 civilians in Nganzai. During the fighting with the security forces Boko Haram fighters reportedly "used fuel-laden motorcycles" and "bows with poison arrows" to attack a police station.  The Guardian reported that the British Royal Air Force conducted Operation Turus in Nigeria in April in response to the Chibok kidnapping. In August Abu Musab al-Barnawi, the leading commander of ISWAP was killed, different reports of his death circulated, alleging that he had either been killed by the Nigerian Army or as a result of inter-ISWAP power struggles. But what does that really mean? On 5 February, it was reported that Nigerian troops backed by jets overran several camps of Boko Haram in the Timbuktu triangle, including the Dole camp. Abu Musab al-Barnawi, a son of Boko Haram founder Mohammed Yusuf was appointed as his successor. Counter-insurgency in Nigeria: The Military and Operations against Boko Haram, 201117. Boko Haram insurgents gathered at strategic locations such as Geidam market with a coordinated plan at 5:30 pm, soon after they positioned at those locations they attacked the town.  On 8 March, a small Special Boat Service team and the Nigerian Army attempted to rescue two hostages, Briton Chris McManus and Italian Franco Lamolinara, being held in Sokoto, by members of the Boko Haram terrorist organisation loyal to al-Qaeda. Since the return of democracy to Nigeria in 1999, Sharia has been instituted as a main body of civil and criminal law in 9 Muslim-majority and in some parts of 3 Muslim-plurality states, when then-Zamfara State governor Ahmad Rufai Sani began the push for the institution of Sharia at the state level of government. Three soldiers were killed and several others were wounded. According to Reuters, Shekau took control of the group after Yusuf's death in 2009. On 24 December, Boko Haram used four bombs to kill 32 people in Jos, Plateau State.  Results, however, have sometimes been mixed and the Army has been criticised for being too kinetic in its COIN. For example, ISIL's central leadership attempted to reduce Boko Haram's brutality toward civilians and internal critics, as Shekau's ideology was "too extreme even for the Islamic State". Cameroon was divided in French and British parts, the latter of which was further subdivided into southern and northern parts.  The territory made up much of what is now Northeastern Nigeria, and a large part of the areas affected by the insurgency. Since then, Shekau and his group are generally referred to as "Boko Haram", whereas the dissidents continued to operate as ISWAP under Abu Musab al-Barnawi. On 20 September, Boko Haram ambushed a military convoy, killing 3 soldiers at the place and fatally wounding Colonel Dahiru Bako. On 1 May, two suicide bombers killed dozens of people in Mubi. After a period of reversals, Boko Haram and ISWAP launched new offensives in 2018 and 2019, again growing in strength. Security officials warned that an attack on Christian holiday is likely, so many residents managed to escape the attack. , On 24 December, President Muhammadu Buhari said that Boko Haram had been ousted from their last stronghold in the Sambisa Forest, effectively reducing Boko Haram to an insurgent force.  A Sharia court may treat blasphemy as deserving of several punishments up to, and including, execution.  The movement consequently fractured into autonomous groups and started an insurgency, though rebel commander Abubakar Shekau managed to achieve a kind of primacy among the insurgents. On 7 January, Operation Tuka Takaibango was officially launched. The two factions consequently fought against each other while waging insurgencies against the local governments. A total of 15 soldiers were killed in the exchange of fire and several others were wounded. Seven soldiers were killed and others were wounded. These attacks included bombings in Maiduguri in January, July and November. On 28 December, female suicide bombers killed over 55 people in Madagali in Adamawa and Maiduguri. The camp taken over by ISWAP operatives is one of the largest Nigerian Army camps and that many residents left the area in the wake of the attack. Several insurgents escaped with wounds. Five insurgents were killed and seven hostages were rescued, several insurgents were wounded but managed to escape.  By early 2012, the group was responsible for over 900 deaths. Ten soldiers were killed in the exchange of fire and several others were wounded. Five people were killed in fighting, including three policemen. , On 26 November, Boko Haram staged an attack on mainly Christian village of Gabass in Far North, Cameroon. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a major Islamic uprising led by Maitatsine (Mohammed Marwa) and his followers, Yan Tatsine that led to several thousand deaths. On 29 July, convoy of the Borno governor, Babagana Zulum was attacked by Boko Haram.  About 57% of all schools in Borno state were closed due to the Boko Haram insurgency, affecting the education of about 3 million children.. In 2014, Boko Haram militants increased their attacks on cities and towns in northern Nigeria and captured part of the country's northeast.  As of early 2016, according to Amnesty International, at least 8,000 detainees have died in detention facilities operated by the security services. The North consisted of Sahelian states that had long Islamic character.  It was reported that the group had taken the girls to neighbouring Cameroon and Chad where they were to be sold into marriages at a price below a dollar each. On May 23 Boko Haram fighters killed around 40 farmers. After Shekau's death masses of Boko Haram militants surrendered while others defected to ISWAP. , On 14 January, ISWAP militants attacked Garin Gada village in Yobe, killing at least two civilians, whilst also raiding and looting food from the village. On 12 November, at least 25 men were killed at the Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. Recent reports on Sharia law in relation to religious conversion, "Nigeria accused of ignoring sect warnings before wave of killings", "Terrorism in Nigeria: the Rise of Boko Haram", Boko Haram strikes again in Borno, kills 4, "Nigeria sect leader defends killings in video", "The Boko Haram terror chief who came back from the dead", "In Nigeria, a Deadly Group's Rage Has Local Roots", "British and Italian hostages killed in Nigeria", "Civilians among dead in Nigeria offensive", "Nigeria polio vaccinators shot dead in Kano", "Extremist attack in Nigeria kills 42 at boarding school", Clashes between Nigerian army, Boko Haram kill 35, "Nigeria unrest: 'Boko Haram' gunmen kill 44 at mosque", Nigerian school says 329 girl pupils missing, "Boko Haram Militants abduct 100+ Teenage Girls in Nigeria", #BringBackOurGirls: the power of a social media campaign, "Nigeria rejected British offer to rescue seized Chibok schoolgirls", "2 explosions hit bus station in central Nigeria city", "Nigeria violence: 'Boko Haram' kill 27 in village attacks", "Bombings kill at least 118 in Nigerian city of Jos", "Boko Haram conflict: Nigerian allies launch offensive", "Boko Haram conflict: Nigerian allies 'retake Damasak', "Nigeria's Boko Haram 'seize' Bama town in Borno", "Nigeria: Boko Haram Kills More Than 50 Elderly People", "Nigeria: New Video Shows Boko Haram Shooting Civilians at School Dormitory", "Nigeria's ignored massacre: 2,000 slaughtered by Boko Haram, 30,000 flee their homes BelfastTelegraph.co.uk", "Nigeria: Massacre possibly deadliest in Boko Haram's history", "Bomb strapped to girl 'about 10 years old' kills 19 in Nigeria", "In Nigeria, New Boko Haram Suicide Bomber Tactic: "It's a Little Girl", "Nigeria postpones elections, focuses on major offensive against Boko Haram", "Nigerian City Under Attack from Suspected Boko Haram Militants", "Nigerian soldiers save one city from Boko Haram but a nearby one is seized", "Nigeria army 'repels' new Boko Haram attack on Maiduguri", "Chadian jets bomb Nigerian town in anti-Boko Haram raid", "African allies claim gains against Boko Haram", "Nigeria's Boko Haram pledges allegiance to Islamic State", "The Islamic State of Boko Haram? , Chris Kwaja, a Nigerian university lecturer and researcher, asserted in 2011 that "religious dimensions of the conflict have been misconstrued as the primary driver of violence when, in fact, disenfranchisement and inequality are the root causes". West Africa leaders vow to wage 'total war' on Boko Haram, African Troops Free Dozens of Boko Haram Victims, "Vigilantes Settle Local Scores With Boko Haram", "Mercenaries Join Nigeria's Military Campaign Against Boko Haram", "South African mercenaries' secret war on Boko Haram", Union agrees to send 7,500 troops to fight Boko Haram in Nigeria, The African Union Readies an Army to Fight Boko Haram, "Feeling the heat: West combats extremists' advance in Africa's deserts".  The conflict takes place within the context of long-standing issues of religious violence between Nigeria's Muslim and Christian communities, and the insurgents' ultimate aim is to establish an Islamic state in the region. In addition, two Nigerian Army vehicles were destroyed. There were additional drone operations based out of Niger. General Dzarma Zirkusu  During the following few years, the violence escalated in terms of both frequency and intensity.  On 12 March, ISIL's spokesman Abu Mohammad al-Adnani released an audiotape in which he welcomed the pledge of allegiance, and described it as an expansion of the group's caliphate to West Africa. , On 2 April, the Nigerian military began what it said was its "final offensive" to retake Boko Haram's last strongholds.  On 8 April, at least 38 people were killed by a suicide car bomber in Kaduna. It should also be noted there are combatants from neighboring Chad and Niger. On 29 December, Seven hunters were killed and nine other were injured after their vehicle hit a landmine planted by Boko Haram near the village of Kayamla. , On 18 January, ISIS operatives exchanged fire and activated several IEDs against Nigerian soldiers in Matari, about 50km west of Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State.  On 6 October, the Nigerian Army won a battle against Boko Haram in Damboa, Borno. Chad armoured column heads for Cameroon to fight Boko Haram. A Nigerian journalist even suggested that the group had up to 50,000 followers. The bombs had been positioned to kill as many people as possible, regardless of religion, which differed from previous attacks in which non-Muslims were targeted. After Maitatsine's death in 1980, the movement continued some five years more. 300 U.S. advisers, Thousands killed, captured, or surrendered, 350,000 deaths total, of which 35,000 direct, The Boko Haram insurgency began in July 2009, when the militant Islamist and jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria. Troops of Nigerian 402 Special Forces Brigade clashed with elements of Boko Haram, according to The Chief of Training and Operations of the Nigerian Army, Nuhu Angbazo Boko Haram, suffered a heavy defeat. , A major problem faced by local governments is the rehabilitation of captured or surrendered militants, as these are generally suspected by officials and civilians to still hold connections to the rebels and pose a security risk. Boko Haram shot dead at least 65 people in Nganzai, Borno, who were walking home from a funeral on 27 July.  On 12 January, Boko Haram carried out an unsuccessful attack on a Chadian Army base.  Meanwhile, Shekau attempted to improve his international standing among jihadists by tacitly aligning with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in March 2015, with Boko Haram becoming the "Islamic State's West Africa Province" (ISWAP).. On 16 February, three suicide bombers killed about 20 people in Konduga. Many others were injured. , On 4 July, ISWAP named new commanders and governors, including personnel in charge of taxation. Whilst in Dikwa, the militants attacked a Nigerian Army base killing six soldiers. Following a plebiscite in 1961, the Southern Cameroons elected to rejoin French Cameroon, while the Northern Cameroons opted to join Nigeria, a move which added to Nigeria's already large Northern Muslim population.  Possibly due to geographical factors, many (but not necessarily all) southern tribes, particularly those on the coast, had made contact with Europeans unlike the North, which was engaged mainly with the Arab world and not Europe. On 17 February, the Nigerian military retook Monguno in a coordinated air and ground assault. By March, two main insurgent factions were still active, and continued to wage an insurgency campaign against the government: The followers of Abubakar Shekau (Boko Haram) operated mainly in southern Borno, while the faction of Abu Musab al-Barnawi (ISWAP) was mostly located around Lake Chad. , Boko Haram's initial uprising failed, and its leader Mohammed Yusuf was killed by the Nigerian government. Mahamat Dby Itno Less than 100 Nigerian soldiers returned after the attack, the attack came 24 hours after ISIL ambushed a military convoy in neighbouring Borno. The DSS also later announced that between 25 and 26 March, five suspected members of Boko Haram had been arrested, thus thwarting the plot.  The group's founder and then leader Mohammed Yusuf was also killed during this time while still in police custody.  In the early hours of 25 January, Boko Haram launched a major assault on the city. On 5 August, Boko Haram launched dual attacks on Bama and Malam Fatori, leaving 35 dead. According to the Nigerian Defence Forces, as of April 5, a total of 51,114 rebels and families, consisting of 11,398 men, 15,381 women, and 24,335 children, have surrendered. During the same month, Abubakar Shekau, a former deputy to Yusuf, appeared in a video posted on YouTube. Over 50 elderly people in Bama were killed. On 21 November, a suicide bomber killed 50 people in a mosque in Mubi. Nigeria amalgamated both the Northern and Southern protectorate in 1914, about a decade after the defeat of the Sokoto Caliphate and other Islamic states by the British which were to constitute much of Northern Nigeria. ISIS operatives seized weapons and ammunition. ", "IS Down But Still a Threat in Many Countries", "Boko Haram 'fighters' surrender as alleged chief killed", "Nigerian military claims surrender of 200 Boko Haram fighters", "76 starving Boko Haram members surrender to Nigerian military", "300 Boko Haram members surrender in Cameroon", "800 Boko Haram militants surrender to Nigeria, General claims", "Nigerian troops 'rescue 157 captives as 77 Boko Haram members surrender', Northeast Nigeria insurgency has killed almost 350,000 UN, "IOM Highlights Humanitarian Needs of 2.4 Million Displaced in Northeast Nigeria", "Act of insurgency is unislamic, says Sultan P.M. News", "Who are Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamists?  On 6 February, Boko Haram attacked Bosso and Diffa in Niger. On 11 December, Boko Haram abducted more than 330 secondary school students in Kankara, Katsina State. , On 8 September, ISWAP fighters managed to capture the town of Gudumbali in central Borno, marking their first major gain in nearly two years. Over 30 soldiers were killed. "Nigeria's Boko Haram 'uses child soldiers' Africa", "Boko Haram: Terrorist Group Has 60,000 Fighters Report", "Nigeria reports of forced conversion and marriage of Christians by Boko Haram | Africa News and Analysis", "Genesis, Training And Changing Tactics of Boko Haram Revealed", "Cameroon Yet to Build Planned Rehab Centers for ex-Boko Haram Fighters". Sir Frederick Lugard assumed office as governor of both protectorates in 1912. On 25 April, 31 Nigerian soldiers were killed in Mainok, Borno. Dissidents among the movement allied themselves with IS' central command and challenged Shekau's leadership, resulting in a violent split of the insurgents. , On 21 February, Boko Haram militants beheaded five people in an IDP camp in Borno. Three civilians were killed and one was kidnapped. The attack on the base resulted in a battle that lasted over an hour, it is unknown if there were any casualties in the assault, a local pro-government militia said the military had sustained some casualties, this attack marks Boko Haram's first major gain since 2015. , On 5 June members of the Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) attacked St Francis Xavier Catholic Church in Owo town in Ondo State, Nigeria, (located 345 kilometres (215 miles) east of Lagos) killing at least 50 parishioners and injuring a further 87 congregants.. On 16 June, Boko Haram claimed responsibility for the Abuja police headquarters bombing, the first known suicide attack in Nigeria. On 18 November, ISWAP fighters attacked a military base in Metele, Borno, killing at least 118 soldiers while at least 153 others were missing after the attack, the militants also seized tanks, armored vehicles, artillery, weapons, and ammunition. The insurgents were driven back during the 2015 West African offensive by a Nigeria-led coalition of African and Western countries, forcing the Islamists to retreat into Sambisa Forest and bases at Lake Chad. Mohamed Bazoum, Nigerian Army:130,000 active frontline personnel; Western nations, including Britain, France, Israel, and the United States had also pledged support including technical expertise and training. "Nigeria's Pernicious Drivers of Ethno-Religious Conflict", "Boko Haram's Rise in Nigeria Sparks Civil War Fears", Nigeria report Civilians killed in Nigerian military's fight with Boko Haram, claim rights groups, "Nigeria: Deaths of hundreds of Boko Haram suspects in custody requires investigation", "Another brutal attack by Boko Haram highlights the weakness of Nigeria's military". Blench, R. M., Daniel, P. & Hassan, Umaru (2003): This page was last edited on 7 July 2022, at 18:32. In the same operation, 22 militants were killed and 17 captured.. , On 4 January, at around 4 am three members of a local vigilance committee were shot dead by Boko Haram in Mayo Moskota area. , On 9 January, At least 28 Boko Haram insurgents were killed during clashes with Nigerian Army in Gujba, while several other insurgents escaped, one Nigerian soldier was killed and one was injured, according to military spokesman of Nigeria.  The airstrike left 115 people dead. Nigeria, he pointed out, has laws giving regional political leaders the power to qualify people as 'indigenes' (original inhabitants) or not. "Nigeria turns east: Russia and Pakistan now selling warplanes to help in Boko Haram fight", "Nigerian Special Forces battalion completes training course in Pakistan", "Boko Haram: Obasanjo leads Colombian security experts to Buhari Premium Times Nigeria", "In Pictures: Lt. General Buratai visits Colombia", "Egypt Pledges To Support Nigeria in Fight Against Boko Haram Channels Television", "Boko Haram: Egypt assures Nigeria of support The Nation Nigeria".  Nigerian Army spokesperson Sami Usman Kukasheka said the pledge was a sign of weakness and that Shekau was like a "drowning man". On 2 March, the Nigerian Armed Forces defeated Boko Haram in the Battle of Konduga. , By April, the Nigerian military was reported to have retaken most of the areas previously controlled by Boko Haram in Northeastern Nigeria, except for Sambisa Forest in Borno. Both hostages were killed by their captors before or during the rescue attempt. The two sides exchanged fire.
On May 16 radical preacher and leader of Jamat Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Dawah wal-Jihd, Alhaji Ari-Difinoma has surrendered to Nigerian troops. ", "Scores Die as Fighters Battle Nigerian Police", "Who are Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamist group? , On 9 February, a group of Nigerian soldiers was attacked between Jakana and Mainok, about 30km west of Maiduguri. , On 17 February, a Nigerian Army convoy was ambushed and targeted by gunfire in the Karito region, near Lake Chad. , On 9 November, Nigerian military carried out two operations against Boko Haram. The operation's target is to wipe out the Boko Haram remnants around Lake Chad, the operation is named after the island where Boko Haram launched a seven-hour assault, that Chadian President Idriss Dby said, was the worst the country's military had ever suffered. , On 28 November, Boko Haram massacred about 110 farmers in Koshebe, Borno.. , On 8 January, Boko Haram attacked village of Mozogo in Cameroon, many civilians tried to escape into a nearby forest. In May 2021 ISWAP attacked and overran Boko Haram militants in the Sambisa Forest and the leader of Boko Haram Abubakar Shekau was killed during the fighting, reportedly using a suicide vest. Cameroon has planned to construct rehab centers for Boko Haram fighters which are supposed to teach them useful skills to get jobs, and to de-radicalise them. Three Boko Haram suicide bombers killed 30 people in Konduga, Borno, on 16 June.  According to an anonymous source working on peace talks with the group, up to 40 percent of the fighters in the group are underage soldiers. On 7 March, Boko Haram's leader Abubakar Shekau pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) via an audio message posted on the organisation's Twitter account.