McKay, D.L., Blumberg, J.B. (2007). Drugs, 61(14), 2035-2063. Inform a doctor, pharmacist and other health care professionals of any herbs being considered or routinely used. Herbs may carry health-related claims about effects on the structure or function of the body or general well-being that may result from the product. Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 6(2), 146-157. Phytother Res, 19, 314-319. Geng, J., Dong, J., Ni, H., et al. Disclaimer | The impact of garlic on lipid parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The body of well-controlled research is growing, but the short-term and long-term benefits and risks, as well as active or beneficial ingredients are still largely unknown. CL conducts independent tests of products for identity and potency (proper labeling), purity (any contaminants), and consistency (the same identity, potency and purity from one batch to the next). A 2008 review found evidence for the effectiveness of red gingseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, but cited the need for further studies. El-Kamary, S.S., Shardell, M.D., Abdel-Hamid, M., et al. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 63(2), 225. Black cohosh: An alternative therapy for menopause? Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. May inhibit platelet activity ask pharmacist/doctor before taking with anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Disease, 26(11), 767-776. Kim, S.H., Park, K.S., Chang, M.J., Sung, J.H. Herbal and botanical supplements are plants used for oral medicinal purposes, and include the flower, leaf, root, and seed of the plant. Foster S., Tyler V. Honest Herbal (4th edition), Binghamton, N.Y., The Haworth Press, Inc. 1999. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65, 76-79. Evidence in vivo in mice. Standardized extracts of St. John's wort have been tested clinically and shown to be an effective alternative to SSRIs or tricyclic antidepressants for the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Some herbal products may contain impure ingredients (such as lead), and less active ingredients than claimed on the label. Carr, M.M. The effectiveness of cranberry is thought to be related to its antimicrobial properties and possibly because it prevents bacteria from sticking to the urinary tract. See disclaimer below. Well tolerated when used in small doses. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs134/en/ last accessed on April 25, 2013. Review about Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 (Ginkgo). Supplements are not required to go through the same stringent testing as over the counter (OTC) and prescribed medicine, and are not regulated as closely by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Available at www.consumerlab.com last accessed on April 25, 2013. (20): CD001423. Ask an Expert. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (12), CD007769. Find background information about botanicals and their use, safety, and health benefits as dietary supplements. Clinical studies have shown that it is effective, but not for all populations (Cimolai & Cimolai, 2007). Ginkgo has been well-investigated clinically, particularly for its efficacy in improving memory and cognitive functions in elderly people suffering from impaired cerebral circuation.
A recent Cochrane review also suggests that the herb is as effective as standard antidepressants for major depression. 2022, Colorado State University Extension, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA. Webmaster | St. John's wort and the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A systematic review. (2006). Can enhance bleeding risk in patients taking anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs. Bent, S. et al. Black cohosh with or without St. John's wort for symptom-specific climacteric treatment-results of a large-scale, controlled, observational study. Echinacea, originally a Native American remedy, has gained popularity for treating the symptoms of colds, flu, and respiratory infections. Check with pharmacist before using saw palmetto anticoagulant/antiplatlet drugs, contraceptive drugs, or estrogens. Herbs are not recommended in place of medical treatment or conventional medicine for chronic conditions or diseases, such as severe depression, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Moderate intake of green tea extract is safe for most individuals. What does the evidence tell us? Get information on popular types of herbal supplements, including what they are used for, if they work, and what to avoid. The active ingredients vary depending on the plant part (flower, root, seeds, nuts, bark, branch), plant form (dried, extract, tincture, tea) and plant species. Products that are described as natural are not always safe. Journal of the American Medical Association, 241(15), 1614-1615. 134. Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine, 2(3), 309. Gertz, H.J., Kiefer, M. (2004). There is some evidence that it may be useful for many other purposes, including stabilizing blood pressure, enhancing immune functions, protecting against infections, and supporting cardiovascular functions. It contains powerful antioxidants known as flavonolignans. Herbal products, similar to vitamin and mineral supplements, are classified by the FDA as dietary supplements, not drugs. Apply to CSU | Bodybuilding and Performance Enhancement Supplements: What You Need To Know, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information, Apple Cider Vinegar In Dietary Supplements, Consortium for Health and Military Performance. For others, herbal use is grounded in traditions passed down from generation to generation or recommended by folk healers. Find information and resources for understanding herbal medicine. Assn., 107(3), 432. Anti-amnestic and anti-aging effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 and its mechanism of action. Safety and efficacy of a Ginkgo biloba-containing dietary supplement on cognitive function, quality of life, and platelet function in healthy, cognitively intact older adults. A 2010 review looked at the cognitive enhancing effect of ginseng and found a lack of convincing evidence for either healthy participants or patients with dementia. Determine whether an herbal supplement is truly needed. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 104(4), 824-36. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 14(4), 268-81. Shah, S.A., Sander, S., White, C.M., Rinaldi, M., Coleman, C.I. One citation that shows up occasionally has been largely discredited and many of the findings retracted by the authors due to poor study design (Siegel, 1979). Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 100(3), 175-86. Children should not be given dietary supplements that contain high levels of phytoestrogens because they may affect brain development. World Health Organization.
See Table 1 for the top ten most commonly used herbal supplements.
Black cohosh and St. John's wort for climacteric symptoms. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand., 84(10), 972-979. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not test herbs for safety or efficacy. (2003). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 35(3), 343. However, a recent review and in vivo study (Beckart et al., 2007) found no effect on blood clotting for garlic and four other common herbal supplements in a two-week dosing study, compared with aspirin which markedly inhibited clotting. Other possible effects are heartburn, flatulence, nausea, and diarrhea. Dietary supplements may be found in many forms including pills, capsules, powders, drinks, or energy bars. (2005). For more information on other forms of dietary supplements, see fact sheet Dietary Supplements: Vitamins and Minerals. CSU Extension - A division of the Office of Engagement. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2007). These and other results support the use of echinacea for prevention and treatment of the common cold. 2007). Reduce menopausal symptoms (hot flashes): Well tolerated by most individuals; stomach upset and headache may occur. Abenavoli, L., Capasso, R., Milic, N., Capasso, F. (2010). Interaction potential between cranberry juice and warfarin. Mills, E., Wilson, K., Clarke, M., et al. Cassidy, A., Albertazzi, P., Nielsen, I.L., et al. (The authors of both studies acknowledge that evidence for clinical benefits of milk thistle extracts exist, but comment on the low quality of the clinical evaluations and suggest more rigorous studies are needed to resolve these controversies.). BMC Geriatrics, 10, 14. Effect of raw garlic vs. commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia. (2003). Herbs also are not recommended for those who may be immuno-compromised (such as the elderly or those with HIV), those with kidney damage or liver disease, anyone who may be undergoing surgery or other invasive procedures, pregnant or lactating women, or children under the age of six. Pham, D.Q., Pham, A.Q. Except where noted in comments, research indicates these 10 herbs appear to be safe when used appropriately. Insomnia, anxiety, irritability, gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort, diarrhea, fatigue, dry mouth, dizziness, and headache. As a result, they are not tested for safety or efficacy, and can be marketed at any time without scientific research and without approval from the FDA. Planta Medica, 72(4), 378-82. Haimov-Kochman R, Hochner-Celnikier D. (2005). Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 45(2), 178-182. Herbs are not as closely regulated as drugs and other medications, though they are often used for similar purposes. Click on a botanical to learn how it is used, possible risks and adverse effects, and references. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks. There are no reported drug/botanical interactions. However, recent studies indicate that while it does lower serum triglycerides, it does not lower LDL cholesterol. Part of the difficulty of evaluating these differing outcomes is related to the methods used in each study, such as the selection of the patient populations, length of treatment, dose of medication, and variability in the composition of the treatment medication. Holistic Nursing Practice, 20(4), 197-203. Ephedra/ma huang (ephedra sinca)hypertension, myocardial infarction (MI), seizure, stroke, psychosis. Browse a list of dietary supplements and herbal remedies to learn about their effectiveness, safety, and drug interactions. New England Journal of Medicine, 354(6), 557-566. Otherwise, it is generally considered safe. Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(24), 2663-2670. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 26(2), 143-149. Consumer Lab. Safety of St. John's wort extract compared to synthetic antidepressants. This site complies with the HONCode standard for trustworthy health information: Earl E. Bakken Center for Spirituality & Healing, Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Journal of the American Diet. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 66(4), 444-450. Lawyere, S., Mahoney, M.C., Cummings, K.M., Kepner, J.L, et al. Stay informed by researching the product to determine: safety, validity of claims, dosage, most effective form, plant part, species, time frame of use, side effects, counter indications with other supplements or medications, and reasonable price. Current research shows limited health benefits from taking herbal and botanical supplements, and no conclusive evidence that herbals should be used to treat or prevent any type of medical condition. Earlier clinical studies in which saw palmetto was compared to finasteride in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) report that the herbal preparations were comparable in efficacy.
Inconclusive: Not enough clinical evidence available to determine effectiveness. The consumer is ultimately responsible for checking their validity and avoiding products with fraudulent claims. Revised Dec 2008. However, more recent studies have found no differences between saw palmetto and placebo (Tacklind et al, 2009). Herbals and botanicals have the potential to interact with prescription medications, over-the-counter drugs, vitamins and minerals. (2007). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 25(1), CD000530. Wietrzyk, J., Grynkiewicz, G., Opolski, A. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: Meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. National Institutes of Health. This site was created by the University of Minnesota's. (It may rarely cause GI upset.). Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic review. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 27, 238-253. DeKosky, S., Fitzpatrick, A., Ives, D, et al.
Nutrition in Clinical Care, 5(6), 283-9. Taylor, M. (2003). Available at http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/BotanicalBackground-HealthProfessional/ last accessed on April 2, 2013. For information on how to identify nutrition fraud, see fact sheet. Results of a 2005 study (Miller, 2005) with mice found that daily consumption of echinacea was preventive; it extended the life span of aging mice, significantly lessened the effects of leukemia, and it extended the life span of the mice with leukemia. (2006). Phytoestrogen supplement use by women. (2006). (2007). http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/list-Botanicals/, http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/BotanicalBackground-HealthProfessional/, www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/pubs/consumer/health/hea07.shtm, http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM2006894.htm, http://nccam.nih.gov/health/herbsataglance.htm, http://ods.od.nih.gov/Health_Information/ODS_Frequently_Asked_Questions.aspx, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs134/en/, CSU Horticulture Agents and Specialists Blog, Capric Acid: A Promising Next-Generation Herbicide for Organic Specialty Crop Production, Columnar and Fastigiate Trees for CO Landscapes, Management-intensive Grazing (MiG) on Irrigated Pasture, Pulse Crops and their Key Role as Staple Foods in Healthful Eating Patterns, Integrated Hive Management for Colorado Beekeepers, Management-intensive Grazing (MiG) and Soil Health, GI symptoms including nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. Saw palmetto is very well-tolerated with rare side-effects. Review of clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy of milk thistle. Learn more about us or about our partners. Reinhart, K.M., Talati, R., White, C.M., Coleman, C.I. Kasper, S., Caraci, F., Forti, B., Drago, F., Aguglia, E. (2010). Ranlov, C., Mehlsen, J., Thomsen, C.F., Hedman, C., von Fircks, H., Winther, K. (2006). Secure .gov websites use HTTPS Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0(6),771-781. Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. As with other herbs that are known to stop blood from clotting, there is a potential for adverse interactions between cranberry juice or cranberry extracts and anticoagulant (or anti-blood clotting) medications, such as Warfarin. Drug Safety, 25(5), 323-344. Ginseng for cognition. (2006). Many use herbs and botanicals for a variety of medical conditions, as well as for overall health and well-being. Rarely, high quantities of soy or isolated isoflavones cause bowel irritation. A review of the reported case studies, however, concluded that there was sparse evidence for a clinically relevant interaction between cranberry juice ingestion and anticoagulant medicines (Pham & Pham, 2007). Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761).in Alzheimer's disease: Is there any evidence? The best prescription for disease prevention is a healthy lifestyle. (2009). Recent studies (Barnes et al., 2006; Lawvers et al., 2006) found that St. John's wort may be effective in maintaining smoking cessation. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Find fact sheets with information about specific herbs or botanicalscommon names, what the science says, potential side effects and cautions, and resources for more information. (2009).
Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. St John's wort for major depression. Phytomedicine, 10(1), 66-86. If a condition is serious or chronic, consult a medical professional. Choose brands that have been tested for consistency in dosage by looking for the United States Pharmaceopia (USP), National Formulary (NF), or Consumer Lab (CL) symbols. Summarizes scientific research on St. Johns wort for depression and suggests sources for more information. There is some uncertainty about the safety of high doses in patients with breast cancer. Black cohosh may cause mild GI upset.
A review of the effectiveness of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) for the symptoms of menopause. Learn about the safety and effectiveness of bodybuilding and athletic supplements. Geller, S.E., Studee, L. (2005). Journal of Nutrition, 133(6), 1983S-1986S. Ginkgo biloba special extract in dementia with neuropsychiatric features. Current Alzheimer Res., 4(3), 253-62. If a manufacturer follows certain protocols for extracting or drying herbs, they can include United States Pharmaceopia (USP) or Natural Formulary (NF) on their label. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). The list in this fact sheet may not include all potentially toxic herbs, so check the resources listed in this fact sheet regularly, for additional toxic herbs. Herbals and botanicals are sold as dietary supplements and regulated differently than pharmaceutical drugs. Good source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an essential fatty acid, which may be responsible for the health benefits of evening primrose oil. Methods of Information in Medicine, 44, 697-703. Dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes, and other substances that may be supplemented, or added to the diet, in order to complete dietary needs or to make up for a nutrition deficiency. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on exercise-induced oxidative stress. Two recent analyses of clinical studies indicate that garlic extract may be effective for the prevention of stomach and colorectal cancers and is moderately effective in lowering serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Most other clinical studies have examined other functions. (2006). There has been some concern about garlic and other herbal supplements hindering the ability of blood to clot and interacting adversely with commonly prescribed anticoagulant (or anti-blood clotting) medicines. To date, the FDA provides a warning for the following herbs which are considered toxic, and given their side effects, should be avoided: Consumers should be informed in order to protect themselves from questionable health products and services. Aged garlic extract improves endothelial function in men with coronary artery disease. 6/00. Some research indicates that echinacea has the potential to boost immune cell response, but only certain preparations of echinacea are able to do so, such as fresh pressed juice or isolated polysaccharides (Linde et al., 2006). Birks, J., Grimley, Evans J. Is there a scientific basis for the therapeutic effects of Serenoa repens inbenign prostatic hyperplasia? Equal Opportunity |
Many consider herbs and botanicals to be natural and therefore healthier and gentler than conventional drugs, even though 30% of all prescription drugs are of herbal origin. Privacy Statement | Some recent studies indicate that combining Black cohosh with St. John's wort could be more effective than Black cohosh alone in treating menopausal symptoms. (2003). The FDA can then recommend that the product be withdrawn from the market and/or labeled to reflect potential side effects. Ulbricht, C., Basch, E., Bent, S., et al. Journal of Urology, 172(5 Pt 1), 1792-1799. Use of ginseng in medicine with emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders.
The best prescription for disease prevention is a healthy lifestyle that includes a diet high in whole-grains, fruits and vegetables, and low in fat. Wherever you live, Extensions job is to determine what issues, concerns and needs are unique to each community, and offer sound and effective solutions. There is considerable concern regarding possible interactions of this herb with prescription. Barnes, J., Barber, N., Wheatley, D., Williamson, E.M. (2006). Markowitz, J.S., Devane, C.L., Chavin, K.D., Taylor, R.M., Ruan, Y., Donovan, J.L. Current Opinion in Urology, 15(1), 45-48. Discontinue if you experience any adverse side effects. If St. John's wort proves to be effective in additional large studies, it could be considered a less expensive, and easily accessible, tool for those who wish to quit smoking. Krebs, E.E., Ensrud, K.E., MacDonald, R., Wilt, T.J. (2004). Radad, K., Gille, G., Liu, L., Rausch, W.D. Top ten most commonly used herbs. Concerns have been expressed about possible interference with the metabolism of the prescription drug Indinivir, but clinical studies have found no evidence for such interference. Fong, Y.K., Milani, S., Djavan, B. Hyperforin in St. John's wort drug interactions. One example of phytoestrogens are the isoflavones found in soy, red clover, and flaxseed. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 74(2), 170-177. Arch Intern Med, 167, 346-353.
A pilot randomised, open, uncontrolled, clinical study of two dosages of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) herb extract (LI-160) as an aid to motivational/behavioural support in smoking cessation. Reay, J.L., Kennedy, D., Scholey, A. The potential benefit of milk thistle in the treatment of liver diseases remains a controversial issue, with two recent review studies (Rambaldi, 2007 and Saller, 2008) coming to different conclusions. There are no significant contraindications or recognized drug/botanical interactions. There are some reports of other side effects with doses higher than 160 mg/day, including nausea, vertigo, uterine contractions, and bradycardia. Journal of Women's Health, 14(7), 634-649. (2005). Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Read the product label and follow the instructions closely. Garlic: A review of its potential use as an anti-cancer agent. Non-Discrimination Statement | See Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets for information about specific botanical supplements. Botanical and dietary supplements for menopausal symptoms: What works, what does not. Nutrition Review, 65(11), 490-502. Role of phytotherapy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Curr Cancer Drug Targets, 3(1), 67-81. Ingestion of large amounts of cranberry juice (> 3-4 L/day) can cause diarrhea and other gastro-intestinal symptoms. High doses of garlic may enhance the effects and adverse effects of anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs, including aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), enoxaparin (Lovenox), and others. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 61, 1-7.
Table 1. Effects of garlic supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Clement, K., Covertson, C.R., Johnson, M.J., Dearing, K. (2006). Questions about CSU Extension programs or resources? A randomizedcontrolled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of silymarin on symptoms, signs andbiomarkers of acute hepatitis. Many plants contain chemicals called phytoestrogens that have effects similar to human estrogen. Standardized garlic extract is most often used in the U.S. for its putative ability to lower cholesterol and serum triglycerides. Southern Medical Journal, 98(3), 311-318. Herbs and botanicals are sold as dietary supplements, which are regulated differently than pharmaceutical drugs and are sold under the terms: herbals, herbal products, herbal medicines, and herbal remedies. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 10(3), 261-264. Islam, J., Carter, R. (2005). According to the market report the top 10 best selling herbs in 2011 were, in rank order: Cranberry juice and concentrated cranberry extracts, which contain a class of antioxidants known as anthocyanins, have recently become widely used for the prevention (and occasionally treatment) of urinary tract infections. Disclaimer: Information concerning herbals and botanicals is constantly changing; therefore take all herbs with caution. This label does not ensure that doses are similar or that the product is safe, it only provides assurance that the product was properly manufactured and contains the ingredients listed on the label. (2007). These are the top 10 best-selling botanicals in the U.S. today. In addition to its utility for treating urinary tract infections, cranberry is also used in holistic therapies that focus on the heart. Wang, B.S., Wang, H., Song, Y.Y., et al. The following are tips intended to help one become more aware of the risks associated with taking herbal and botanical supplements: For more information and advice for choosing herbal and botanical products, see The National Institute of Healths (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements website- Botanical Supplement Fact Sheet: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/list-Botanicals/, For in depth information regarding supplement regulation see the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements website: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/BotanicalBackground-HealthProfessional/, For more information on how to spot a false health claim, see the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) website: www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/pubs/consumer/health/hea07.shtm, For information on recent supplement alerts and safety information, see the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM2006894.htm. Linde, K., Berner, M.M., Kriston, L. (2008).
A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Patients who are preparing for or have undergone organ transplantation should also avoid ginseng. Phytomedicine, 13(3), 199-204. Pilkington, K., Boshnakova, A., Richardson, J. Chung, D.J., Kim, H.Y., et al. Boyle, P., Robertson, C., Lowe, F., Roehrborn, C. (2004). Gardiner, C., Lawson, L., Block, E., et al. Need expert help on a specific question or topic? Garlic can cause smelly breath and body odor. Rare effects include nausea, rash, photosensitivity, sexual dysfunction. Traditional Medicine. The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory study: Design and baseline data of a randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract in prevention of dementia. Fact Sheet No.
Napryeyenko, O., Borzenko, I., GINDEM-NP Study Group (2007). May increase the risk of bleeding ask pharmacist/doctor before taking with anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs, garlic, ginko, taking with anticoagulant/or. No severe adverse effects reported, although some people may experience loose stools. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4), CD000448. Though many herbs are considered safe, some have hazardous side effects especially in children, pregnant women, or those with underlying medical conditions and diseases. Briese, V., Stammwitz, U., Friede, M., Henneicke-von, Zepelin, H.H. Madabushi, R., Frank, B., Drewelow, B., Derendorf, H., Butterweck, V. (2006). To address this uncertainty, federal law states that herbs cannot claim to prevent, diagnose, treat or cure a condition or disease. Get the answers here.
Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: A meta-analysis. Black cohosh is commonly used to treat menopausal symptoms, especially hot flashes. Please Contact Us.
Evidence-based systematic review of saw palmetto by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. The most rigorous stamp of approval is from Consumer Lab (CL). Discontinue use if adverse side effects are experienced. Mahady, G.B., Fabricant, D., Chadwick, L.R., Dietz, B. Herbs generally are not recommended for people suffering from autoimmune disorders or liver disease, those undergoing surgery or other invasive medical procedure, pregnant or lactating women, or infants and small children. In general, ginseng is well-tolerated, with adverse reactions largely being mild and reversible (Thompson et al., 2002). (2007). (See the section located above: Are Herbs and Botanicals Safe?). Saw palmetto and lower urinary tract symptoms: What is the latest evidence? Americans commonly take St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) to combat symptoms of depression. Linde, K. et al. People with allergies to soy or flax should use caution. What does science say about use of dietary supplements for diabetes? Fleischauer, A.T., Poole, C., Arab, L. (2000). Because cranberry juice is acidic, it has been suggested that ingestion of large amounts may increase the risk of kidney stone formation. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 4(4), 170-186.
National Institutes of Health: Botanical Dietary Supplements. Physical activity also plays an important role in reducing ones risk for disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(4), 1047-1052. Angiomodulatory and neurological effects of ginsenosides. (2007). (2006). More studies need to be done in this area. Panax ginseng: A systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Fertility and Sterility, 87(6), 1243-1249. Hot flashes revisited: pharmacological and herbal options for hot flashes management. International Journal of Fertility & Women's Medicine, 48(2), 64-8. (2009). Siegel, R.K. (1979). The HerbList App provides research-based information about the safety and effectiveness of herbal products. Tips about the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements for weight control. Ginseng abuse syndrome. Barrett, B. Nahata, M. (2006). Identification of adverse drug reactions by evaluation of a prescription database, demonstrated for "risk of bleeding."
Mechanisms of action. Pharmacopsychiatry, 43(3), 86-91. Tamayo, C., Diamond, S. (2007). However, numerous other clinical studies have reported positive outcomes of Ginkgo biloba treatment for the prevention of cognitive deficits in the elderly (Ramassmay et al. British Journal of Urology International, 93(6), 751-756. High doses may cause abdominal discomfort, heartburn, diarrhea (most often may cause abdominal associated with powdered ginger.